New resting-state fMRI related studies at PubMed

Altered brain activity mediates the relationship between white matter hyperintensity severity and cognition in older adults

Thu, 10/21/2021 - 10:00

Brain Imaging Behav. 2021 Oct 20. doi: 10.1007/s11682-021-00564-y. Online ahead of print.


White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) on magnetic resonance imaging are commonly found in older adults. The mechanisms underpinning the dose-dependent association between WMH severity and cognition are not well understood. This study aimed to investigate how brain activity changes with WMH severity, and if altered brain activity mediates the relationship between WMH and cognitive function. A total of 35 participants with moderate to severe WMHs (Fazekas grade 2 or 3) and 34 participants with mild WMHs (Fazekas grade 1), who were cognitively normal, were included. Resting-state brain function was analyzed using the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF). A mean fractional anisotropy (FA) value of 20 tract-specific regions of interest was calculated. Mediation analysis was used to assess whether ALFF values mediated the relationship between WMH and cognition. The results showed that compared to those with mild WMHs, participants with confluent WMHs had worse memory and naming ability and also had increased ALFF in the right middle frontal gyrus and decreased ALFF in the left middle occipital gyrus. After controlling for age, gender, education and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4 status, increased ALFF in the right prefrontal cortex was associated with worse immediate recall and recognition, and ALFF values mediated the relationships between both Fazekas scores and FA values and memory. In conclusion, our study suggests that cognitively normal adults with high WMH load exhibit subclinical cognitive dysfunction and altered spontaneous brain activity. The mediating effects of brain activity help to shed light on our understanding of the relationship between WMHs and cognition.

PMID:34671890 | DOI:10.1007/s11682-021-00564-y

Resting Hypoconnectivity of Theoretically Defined Addiction Networks during Early Abstinence Predicts Subsequent Relapse in Alcohol Use Disorder

Thu, 10/21/2021 - 10:00

Cereb Cortex. 2021 Oct 20:bhab374. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhab374. Online ahead of print.


Theoretical models of addiction suggest that alterations in addiction domains including incentive salience, negative emotionality, and executive control lead to relapse in alcohol use disorder (AUD). To determine whether the functional organization of neural networks underlying these domains predict subsequent relapse, we generated theoretically defined addiction networks. We collected resting functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 45 individuals with AUD during early abstinence (number of days abstinent M = 25.40, SD = 16.51) and calculated the degree of resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) within these networks. Regression analyses determined whether the RSFC strength in domain-defined addiction networks measured during early abstinence predicted subsequent relapse (dichotomous or continuous relapse metrics). RSFC within each addiction network measured during early abstinence was significantly lower in those that relapsed (vs. abstained) and predicted subsequent time to relapse. Lower incentive salience RSFC during early abstinence increased the odds of relapsing. Neither RSFC in a control network nor clinical self-report measures predicted relapse. The association between low incentive salience RSFC and faster relapse highlights the need to design timely interventions that enhance RSFC in AUD individuals at risk of relapsing faster.

PMID:34671808 | DOI:10.1093/cercor/bhab374

Pre-operative Limbic System Functional Connectivity Distinguishes Responders From Non-responders to Surgical Treatment for Trigeminal Neuralgia

Thu, 10/21/2021 - 10:00

Front Neurol. 2021 Oct 4;12:716500. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2021.716500. eCollection 2021.


Background: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a severe facial pain condition often requiring surgical treatment. Unfortunately, even technically successful surgery fails to achieve durable pain relief in many patients. The purpose of this study was to use resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to: (1) compare functional connectivity between limbic and accessory sensory networks in TN patients vs. healthy controls; and (2) determine if pre-operative variability in these networks can distinguish responders and non-responders to surgery for TN. Methods: We prospectively recruited 22 medically refractory classic or idiopathic TN patients undergoing surgical treatment over a 3-year period, and 19 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. fMRI was acquired within the month prior to surgery for all TN patients and at any time during the study period for controls. Functional connectivity analysis was restricted to six pain-relevant brain regions selected a priori: anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), posterior cingulate cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, and insula. Two comparisons were performed: (1) TN vs. controls; and (2) responders vs. non-responders to surgical treatment for TN. Functional connectivity was assessed with a two-sample t-test, using a statistical significance threshold of p < 0.050 with false discovery rate (FDR) correction for multiple comparisons. Results: Pre-operative functional connectivity was increased in TN patients compared to controls between the right insular cortex and both the left thalamus [t (39) = 3.67, p = 0.0007] and right thalamus [t (39) = 3.22, p = 0.0026]. TN patients who were non-responders to surgery displayed increased functional connectivity between limbic structures, including between the left and right hippocampus [t (18) = 2.85, p = 0.0106], and decreased functional connectivity between the ACC and both the left amygdala [t (18) = 2.94, p = 0.0087] and right hippocampus [t (18) = 3.20, p = 0.0049]. Across all TN patients, duration of illness was negatively correlated with connectivity between the ACC and left amygdala (r 2 = 0.34, p = 0.00437) as well as the ACC and right hippocampus (r 2 = 0.21, p = 0.0318). Conclusions: TN patients show significant functional connectivity abnormalities in sensory-salience regions. However, variations in the strength of functional connectivity in limbic networks may explain why some TN patients fail to respond adequately to surgery.

PMID:34671309 | PMC:PMC8520903 | DOI:10.3389/fneur.2021.716500

Regulatory Effects of Acupuncture on Emotional Disorders in Patients With Menstrual Migraine Without Aura: A Resting-State fMRI Study

Thu, 10/21/2021 - 10:00

Front Neurosci. 2021 Oct 4;15:726505. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2021.726505. eCollection 2021.


Background: Menstrual migraine without aura (MMoA) refers to a specific type of migraine that is associated with the female ovarian cycle. It is particularly serious and has brought huge life pressure and mental burden to female patients. Acupuncture has been commonly used to prevent migraines and relieve concomitant emotional disorders; however, the physiological mechanism underlying this intervention remains unclear. This study aimed to use resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) to investigate whether acupuncture can modulate brain function and if the potential influence on brain activity correlates with improving emotional symptoms in MMoA patients. Methods: Overall, 44 patients were randomly divided into a true acupuncture (TA) group and the sham acupuncture (SA) group. Patients underwent rsfMRI before and after 3-month treatment, the amplitude of low-frequency fuctuations (ALFF) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) in rsfMRI were calculated. Zung self-rating anxiety scale (SAS), Zung self-rating depression scale (SDS), frequency of migraine attacks, visual analog scale, and intensity of the migraine were used for evaluate the clinical effect. The clinical changes of variables were also used to further assess the correlation with brain activity in MMoA patients. Results: After acupuncture treatment, the emotional symptoms of both groups of patients improved, and the clinical symptoms of migraine were alleviated. The major finding of our study was that patients with MMoA showed lower ALFF value in the left anterior cingulate and the value was positively correlated with the decreases in the SAS and SDS scores. In the SA group, common brain regions responded both in ALFF and regional homogeneity values mainly in the insula, and no significant correlations were observed between brain regions and clinical variables. Conclusions: These results indicated that both two acupuncture treatments were helpful in treating migraine and could improve emotion symptoms. TA had a relatively better effect in reducing the frequency of migraine attack than SA. The two therapies have different modulation effects as TA regulates emotional disorders by modulating the frontal-limbic regions, and SA may modulate pain perception through the placebo effect on insula and by indirectly regulating emotional disorders. These findings provided evidence that acupuncture is a complementary and alternative therapy to relieve clinical symptoms in female patients with migraines and could help enhance clinical diagnosis and treatment. Clinical Trial Registration: [], identifier [ChiCTR-IOR-15006648. Registered 23 June 2015].

PMID:34671239 | PMC:PMC8521095 | DOI:10.3389/fnins.2021.726505

Brain network effects by continuous theta burst stimulation in Mal de Debarquement Syndrome: simultaneous EEG and fMRI study

Wed, 10/20/2021 - 10:00

J Neural Eng. 2021 Oct 20. doi: 10.1088/1741-2552/ac314b. Online ahead of print.


OBJECTIVE: Heterogeneous clinical responses to treatment with non-invasive brain stimulation are commonly observed, making it necessary to determine personally optimized stimulation parameters. We investigated neuroimaging markers of effective brain targets of treatment with continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) in Mal de Débarquement Syndrome (MdDS), a balance disorder of persistent oscillating vertigo previously shown to exhibit abnormal intrinsic functional connectivity.

APPROACH: Twenty-four right-handed, cTBS-naive individuals with MdDS received single administrations of cTBS over one of three stimulation targets in randomized order. The optimal target was determined based on the assessment of acute changes after the administration of cTBS over each target. Repetitive cTBS sessions were delivered on three consecutive days with the optimal target chosen by the participant. EEG was recorded at single-administration test sessions of cTBS. Simultaneous EEG and fMRI data were acquired at baseline and after completion of 10-12 sessions. Network connectivity changes after single and repetitive stimulations of cTBS were analyzed.

MAIN RESULTS: Using electrophysiological source imaging and a data-driven method, we identified network-level connectivity changes in EEG that correlated with symptom responses after completion of multiple sessions of cTBS. We further determined that connectivity changes demonstrated by EEG during test sessions of single administrations of cTBS were signatures that could predict optimal targets.

SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings demonstrate the effect of cTBS on resting state brain networks and suggest an imaging-based, closed-loop stimulation paradigm that can identify optimal targets during short-term test sessions of stimulation. Identifier: NCT02470377.

PMID:34670201 | DOI:10.1088/1741-2552/ac314b

Neuroimaging Systematic Review in Persistent Postural-Perceptual Dizziness: The Elaborate Alterations in the Delicate Network to Remain Balanced

Wed, 10/20/2021 - 10:00

Otol Neurotol. 2021 Oct 20. doi: 10.1097/MAO.0000000000003389. Online ahead of print.


OBJECTIVES: Persistent postural-perceptual dizziness (PPPD) is a chronic functional vestibular disorder that may have normal physical examination, clinical laboratory testing and vestibular evaluation. However, advances in neuroimaging have provided new insights in brain functional connectivity and structure in patients with PPPD. This systematic review was aimed at identifying significant structural or alterations in functional connectivity in patients with PPPD.

DATABASES REVIEWED: Science Direct, Pubmed, Embase via Ovid databases, and Cochrane library.

METHODS: This review following the guidelines of PRISMA, systematically and independently examined papers published up to March 2021 which fulfilled the predetermined criteria. PROSPERO Registration (CRD42020222334).

RESULTS: A total of 15 studies were included (MRI = 4, SPECT = 1, resting state fMRI = 4, task-based fMRI = 5, task-based fMRI + MRI = 1). Significant changes in the gray matter volume, cortical folding, blood flow, and connectivity were seen at different brain regions involved in vestibular, visual, emotion, and motor processing.

CONCLUSION: There is a multisensory dimension to the impairment resulting in chronic compensatory changes in PPPD that is evident by the significant alterations in multiple networks involved in maintaining balance. These changes observed offer some explanation for the symptoms that a PPPD patient may experience.Systematic Review Registration: This study is registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020222334).

PMID:34669685 | DOI:10.1097/MAO.0000000000003389

Disrupted fronto-temporal function in panic disorder: a resting-state connectome study

Wed, 10/20/2021 - 10:00

Brain Imaging Behav. 2021 Oct 19. doi: 10.1007/s11682-021-00563-z. Online ahead of print.


Recent neuroimaging studies have identified alterations in activity and connectivity among many brain regions as potential biomarkers for panic disorder. However, the functional connectome of panic disorder is not well understood. Therefore, a graph-theoretical approach was applied in this study to construct functional networks of patients and healthy controls in order to discover topological changes in panic disorder. 31 patients and 33 age and sex matched healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Brain networks for each participant were structured using nodes from the Anatomical Automatic Labeling template and edges from connectivity matrices. Then, topological organizations of networks were calculated. Network-based statistical analysis was conducted, and global and nodal properties were compared between patients and controls. Unlike controls, patients with panic disorder displayed a small-world network. Patients also revealed decreased nodal efficiency in right superior frontal gyrus (SFG), middle frontal gyrus (MFG), right superior temporal gyrus (STG), and left middle temporal gyrus (MTG). Decreased functional connectivity was found in panic disorder between right MTG and extensive temporal regions. Among these disrupted regions, the decreased nodal efficiency of SFG showed a positive correlation with clinical symptoms while nodal betweenness centrality in angular gyrus showed a negative correlation. Our results indicated decreased function of global and regional information transmission in panic disorder and emphasized the role of temporal regions in its pathology.

PMID:34668168 | DOI:10.1007/s11682-021-00563-z

mTOR-related synaptic pathology causes autism spectrum disorder-associated functional hyperconnectivity

Wed, 10/20/2021 - 10:00

Nat Commun. 2021 Oct 19;12(1):6084. doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-26131-z.


Postmortem studies have revealed increased density of excitatory synapses in the brains of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with a putative link to aberrant mTOR-dependent synaptic pruning. ASD is also characterized by atypical macroscale functional connectivity as measured with resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI). These observations raise the question of whether excess of synapses causes aberrant functional connectivity in ASD. Using rsfMRI, electrophysiology and in silico modelling in Tsc2 haploinsufficient mice, we show that mTOR-dependent increased spine density is associated with ASD -like stereotypies and cortico-striatal hyperconnectivity. These deficits are completely rescued by pharmacological inhibition of mTOR. Notably, we further demonstrate that children with idiopathic ASD exhibit analogous cortical-striatal hyperconnectivity, and document that this connectivity fingerprint is enriched for ASD-dysregulated genes interacting with mTOR or Tsc2. Finally, we show that the identified transcriptomic signature is predominantly expressed in a subset of children with autism, thereby defining a segregable autism subtype. Our findings causally link mTOR-related synaptic pathology to large-scale network aberrations, revealing a unifying multi-scale framework that mechanistically reconciles developmental synaptopathy and functional hyperconnectivity in autism.

PMID:34667149 | DOI:10.1038/s41467-021-26131-z

The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation predicts levodopa treatment response in patients with Parkinson's disease

Tue, 10/19/2021 - 10:00

Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2021 Oct 6;92:26-32. doi: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2021.10.003. Online ahead of print.


INTRODUCTION: Levodopa has become the main therapy for motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). This study aimed to test whether the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) computed by fMRI could predict individual patient's response to levodopa treatment.

METHODS: We included 40 patients. Treatment efficacy was defined based on motor symptoms improvement from the state of medication off to medication on, as assessed by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score III. Two machine learning models were constructed to test the prediction ability of ALFF. First, the ensemble method was implemented to predict individual treatment responses. Second, the categorical boosting (CatBoost) classification was used to predict individual levodopa responses in patients classified as moderate and superior responders, according to the 50% threshold of improvement. The age, disease duration and treatment dose were controlled as covariates.

RESULTS: No significant difference in clinical data were observed between moderate and superior responders. Using the ensemble method, the regression model showed a significant correlation between the predicted and the observed motor symptoms improvement (r = 0.61, p < 0.01, mean absolute error = 0.11 ± 0.02), measured as a continuous variable. The use of the Catboost algorithm revealed that ALFF was able to differentiate between moderate and superior responders (area under the curve = 0.90). The mainly contributed regions for both models included the bilateral primary motor cortex, the occipital cortex, the cerebellum, and the basal ganglia.

CONCLUSION: Both continuous and binary ALFF values have the potential to serve as promising predictive markers of dopaminergic therapy response in patients with PD.

PMID:34666272 | DOI:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2021.10.003

Topological features of limbic dysfunction in chronicity of tinnitus with intact hearing: New hypothesis for 'noise-cancellation' mechanism

Tue, 10/19/2021 - 10:00

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2021 Oct 16:110459. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2021.110459. Online ahead of print.


PURPOSE: The reorganization of the limbic regions extend to general cognitive network is believed to exist in the chronicity of tinnitus with particular 'hubs' contributing to a 'noise-cancellation' mechanism. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the topological brain network of tinnitus in different periods.

METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging were obtained from 32 patients with acute tinnitus, 41 patients with chronic tinnitus and 60 age- and gender- matched healthy controls (HC). The topological features of their brain networks were explored using graph theory analysis.

RESULTS: Common small-world attributes were compared between the three groups, all showed a significantly increased values in Cp, Lp, λ (all p < 0.05). Significantly increased nodal centralities in the left superior frontal gyrus and the right precuneus, significantly decreased nodal centralities in the right inferior temporal gyrus were observed for acute tinnitus patients compared to HC. While for chronic tinnitus patients, there were significant increased nodal centralities in the left hippocampus, amygdala, and temporal pole, but decreased nodal centralities in the right inferior temporal gyrus. Additionally, significant higher nodal centralities were found in bilateral medial superior frontal gyrus for acute tinnitus patients compared to chronic tinnitus patients. Besides, alterations in rich-club organization were found in acute tinnitus patients and chronic tinnitus patients compared with HC, with increased functional connections among rich-club nodes and peripheral nodes in patients with tinnitus.

CONCLUSIONS: Brain network topological properties altered across prefrontal-limbic-subcortical regions in tinnitus. The existed hubs in tinnitus might indicate an emotional and cognitive burden in 'noise-cancellation' mechanism.

PMID:34666066 | DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2021.110459

Impact of App-Delivered Mindfulness Meditation on Functional Connectivity, Mental Health, and Sleep Disturbances Among Physician Assistant Students: Randomized, Wait-list Controlled Pilot Study

Tue, 10/19/2021 - 10:00

JMIR Form Res. 2021 Oct 19;5(10):e24208. doi: 10.2196/24208.


BACKGROUND: Health care provider and trainee burnout results in substantial national and institutional costs and profound social effects. Identifying effective solutions and interventions to cultivate resilience among health care trainees is critical. Although less is known about the mental health needs of physician assistants (PAs) or PA students, accumulating research indicates that they experience similarly alarming rates of burnout, depression, and emotional exhaustion. Mobile app-delivered mindfulness meditation may be an effective part of salubrious programming to bolster long-term resilience and health among PA students.

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine the impact of app-delivered mindfulness meditation on self-reported mental health symptoms among PA students. A secondary aim is to investigate changes in brain connectivity to identify neurobiological changes related to changes in mental health symptoms.

METHODS: We recruited PA students enrolled in their third semester of PA school and used a longitudinal, randomized, wait-list-controlled design. Participants randomized to the mindfulness group were provided 1-year subscriptions to the 10% Happier app, a consumer-based meditation app, and asked to practice every day for 8 weeks. Before randomization and again after completion of the 8-week program, all participants completed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging as well as self-report assessments of burnout, depression, anxiety, and sleep impairment. App use was acquired as a measure of mindfulness practice time.

RESULTS: PA students randomized to the mindfulness group reported improvements in sleep impairment compared with those randomized to the wait-list control group (ηp2=0.42; P=.01). Sleep impairment decreased significantly in the mindfulness group (19% reduction; P=.006) but not in the control group (1% reduction; P=.71). There were no other significant changes in mental health for those randomized to app-delivered mindfulness. Across all students, changes in sleep impairment were associated with increased resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex (a component of the default mode network) and the superior temporal gyrus, as well as between areas important for working memory. Changes in connectivity predicted categorical conversion from impaired to nonimpaired sleep in the mindfulness group.

CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study is the first to examine app-based mindfulness for PA students' mental health and investigate the impact of mindfulness on PA students' brain function. These findings suggest that app-delivered mindfulness may be an effective tool to improve sleep dysfunction and that it may be an important part of the programming necessary to reduce the epidemic of suffering among health profession trainees.

PMID:34665153 | DOI:10.2196/24208

Prefrontal stimulation prior to motor sequence learning alters multivoxel patterns in the striatum and the hippocampus

Tue, 10/19/2021 - 10:00

Sci Rep. 2021 Oct 18;11(1):20572. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-99926-1.


Motor sequence learning (MSL) is supported by dynamical interactions between hippocampal and striatal networks that are thought to be orchestrated by the prefrontal cortex. In the present study, we tested whether individually-tailored theta-burst stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) prior to MSL can modulate multivoxel response patterns in the stimulated cortical area, the hippocampus and the striatum. Response patterns were assessed with multivoxel correlation structure analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging data acquired during task practice and during resting-state scans before and after learning/stimulation. Results revealed that, across stimulation conditions, MSL induced greater modulation of task-related DLPFC multivoxel patterns than random practice. A similar learning-related modulatory effect was observed on sensorimotor putamen patterns under inhibitory stimulation. Furthermore, MSL as well as inhibitory stimulation affected (posterior) hippocampal multivoxel patterns at post-intervention rest. Exploratory analyses showed that MSL-related brain patterns in the posterior hippocampus persisted into post-learning rest preferentially after inhibitory stimulation. These results collectively show that prefrontal stimulation can alter multivoxel brain patterns in deep brain regions that are critical for the MSL process. They also suggest that stimulation influenced early offline consolidation processes as evidenced by a stimulation-induced modulation of the reinstatement of task pattern into post-learning wakeful rest.

PMID:34663890 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-021-99926-1

Aberrantly higher functional connectivity in the salience network is associated with transient global amnesia

Tue, 10/19/2021 - 10:00

Sci Rep. 2021 Oct 18;11(1):20598. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-97842-y.


Triple intrinsic brain networks including the salience network (SN), default mode network (DMN), and central executive network (CEN), are known to be important in human cognition. Therefore, investigating those intrinsic brain networks in transient global amnesia (TGA) may offer novel insight useful for the pathophysiology of TGA. Fifty TGA patients underwent the resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) within 24 h, at 72 h, and 3 months after TGA onset. Twenty-five age, gender matched controls also underwent rsfMRI. Within 24 h of TGA onset, TGA patients showed greater functional connectivity in the SN and lower functional connectivity in the DMN, while relatively preserved functional connectivity was observed in the CEN. Interestingly, TGA patients continued to show decreased connectivity in the DMN, while no alterations were shown in the SN 72 h after illness onset. Three months after TGA onset, alterations of functional connectivity in the SN or the DMN were normalized. Our findings suggest that TGA is associated with transient greater functional connectivity in the SN and lower connectivity in the DMN.

PMID:34663883 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-021-97842-y

Changes in cognitive and behavioral control after lamotrigine and intensive dialectical behavioral therapy for severe, multi-impulsive bulimia nervosa: an fMRI case study

Mon, 10/18/2021 - 10:00

Eat Weight Disord. 2021 Oct 18. doi: 10.1007/s40519-021-01308-z. Online ahead of print.


PURPOSE: Adults with bulimia nervosa (BN) and co-occurring emotional dysregulation and multiple impulsive behaviors are less responsive to existing interventions. Initial data suggest that the combination of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) and a mood stabilizer, lamotrigine, significantly reduces symptoms of affective and behavioral dysregulation in these patients. Identifying candidate neurobiological mechanisms of change for this novel treatment combination may help guide future randomized controlled trials and inform new and targeted treatment development. Here, we examined neurocognitive and symptom changes in a female patient with BN and severe affective and behavioral dysregulation who received DBT and lamotrigine.

METHODS: Go/no-go task performance data and resting-state functional MRI scans were acquired before the initiation of lamotrigine (after 6 weeks in an intensive DBT program), and again after reaching and maintaining a stable dose of lamotrigine. The patient completed a battery of symptom measures biweekly for 18 weeks over the course of treatment.

RESULTS: After lamotrigine initiation, the patient made fewer errors on a response inhibition task and showed increased and new connectivity within frontoparietal and frontolimbic networks involved in behavioral and affective control. Accompanying this symptom improvement, the patient reported marked reductions in bulimic symptoms, behavioral dysregulation, and reactivity to negative affect, along with increases in DBT skills use.

CONCLUSION: Improved response inhibition and cognitive control network connectivity should be further investigated as neurocognitive mechanisms of change with combined DBT and lamotrigine for eating disorders. Longitudinal, controlled trials integrating neuroimaging and symptom measures are needed to fully evaluate the effects of this treatment.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV: Evidence obtained from multiple time series with or without the intervention, such as case studies.

PMID:34661882 | DOI:10.1007/s40519-021-01308-z

Enhanced Temporal Coupling between Thalamus and Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Mediates Chronic Low Back Pain and Depression

Mon, 10/18/2021 - 10:00

Neural Plast. 2021 Oct 8;2021:7498714. doi: 10.1155/2021/7498714. eCollection 2021.


Numerous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the brain plasticity is associated with chronic low back pain (cLBP). However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the underlying mechanisms of thalamic pathways for chronic pain and psychological effects in cLBP caused by lumbar disc herniation (LDH). Combining psychophysics and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we investigated the structural and functional brain plasticity in 36 patients with LDH compared with 38 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. We found that (1) LDH patients had increased psychophysical disturbs (i.e., depression and anxiety), and depression (Beck-Depression Inventory, BDI) was found to be an outstanding significant factor to predict chronic pain (short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire, SF-MPQ); (2) the LDH group showed significantly smaller fractional anisotropy values in the region of posterior corona radiate while gray matter volumes were comparable in both groups; (3) resting state functional connectivity analysis revealed that LDH patients exhibited increased temporal coupling between the thalamus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), which further mediate the relationship from chronic pain to depression. Our results emphasized that thalamic pathways underlying prefrontal cortex might play a key role in regulating chronic pain and depression of the pathophysiology of LDH.

PMID:34659398 | PMC:PMC8519723 | DOI:10.1155/2021/7498714

Longitudinal Changes of Sensorimotor Resting-State Functional Connectivity Differentiate between Patients with Thalamic Infarction and Pontine Infarction

Mon, 10/18/2021 - 10:00

Neural Plast. 2021 Oct 8;2021:7031178. doi: 10.1155/2021/7031178. eCollection 2021.


Purpose. We investigated the disparate influence of lesion location on functional damage and reorganization of the sensorimotor brain network in patients with thalamic infarction and pontine infarction. Methods. Fourteen patients with unilateral infarction of the thalamus and 14 patients with unilateral infarction of the pons underwent longitudinal fMRI measurements and motor functional assessment five times during a 6-month period (<7 days, at 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after stroke onset). Twenty-five age- and sex-matched controls underwent MRI examination across five consecutive time points in 6 months. Functional images from patients with left hemisphere lesions were first flipped from the left to the right side. The voxel-wise connectivity analyses between the reference time course of each ROI (the contralateral dorsal lateral putamen (dl-putamen), pons, ventral anterior (VA), and ventral lateral (VL) nuclei of the thalamus) and the time course of each voxel in the sensorimotor area were performed for all five measurements. One-way ANOVA was used to identify between-group differences in functional connectivity (FC) at baseline stage (<7 days after stroke onset), with infarction volume included as a nuisance variable. The family-wise error (FWE) method was used to account for multiple comparison issues using SPM software. Post hoc repeated-measure ANOVA was applied to examine longitudinal FC reorganization. Results. At baseline stage, significant differences were detected between the contralateral VA and ipsilateral postcentral gyrus (cl_VA-ip_postcentral), contralateral VL and ipsilateral precentral gyrus (cl_VL-ip_precentral). Repeated measures ANOVA revealed that the FC change of cl_VA-ip_postcentral differ significantly among the three groups over time. The significant changes of FC between cl_VA and ip_postcentral at different time points in the thalamic infarction group showed that compared with 7 days after stroke onset, there was significantly increased FC of cl_VA-ip_postcentral at 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after stroke onset. Conclusions. The different patterns of sensorimotor functional damage and reorganization in patients with pontine infarction and thalamic infarction may provide insights into the neural mechanisms underlying functional recovery after stroke.

PMID:34659397 | PMC:PMC8519702 | DOI:10.1155/2021/7031178

Changes in Regional Homogeneity of Medication-Free Major Depressive Disorder Patients With Different Onset Ages

Mon, 10/18/2021 - 10:00

Front Psychiatry. 2021 Oct 1;12:713614. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2021.713614. eCollection 2021.


Background: Neurobiological mechanisms underlying the development of major depressive disorder (MDD) may differ depending on onset ages. Our aim was to determine whether regional homogeneity (ReHo) changes in early-onset depression (EOD) and late-onset depression (LOD) are different, which could also delineate EOD and LOD. Methods: Ninety-one MDD patients and 115 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited, and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected. The ReHo comparison was conducted using analysis of variance. Results: Compared with HCs, MDD patients showed decreased ReHo in the left precentral gyrus and the left middle cingulum area, and increased ReHo in the left middle orbital frontal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus. Compared with LOD patients, young HC separately, EOD patients had significantly increased ReHo in the right inferior frontal triangular gyrus and the left postcentral gyrus. However, compared with young HC, EOD patients showed decreased ReHo in the right superior frontal gyrus/supplementary motor area and the right medial frontal gyrus. ReHo in the right inferior frontal triangular gyrus was negatively correlated with the severity of cognitive disturbance in LOD patients (r = -0.47, p = 0.002), but not in EOD patients (r = 0.21, p = 0.178). Conclusion: MDD patients with different onset ages may have different pathophysiological mechanisms; the EOD patients had more abnormal ReHo than LOD patients in the prefrontal lobe, especially the right inferior frontal triangular gyrus.

PMID:34658953 | PMC:PMC8517084 | DOI:10.3389/fpsyt.2021.713614

Altered Functional Connectivity of the Nucleus Accumbens Network Between Deficit and Non-deficit Schizophrenia

Mon, 10/18/2021 - 10:00

Front Psychiatry. 2021 Sep 30;12:704631. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2021.704631. eCollection 2021.


Deficit schizophrenia (DS), which is marked by stable negative symptoms, is regarded as a homogeneous subgroup of schizophrenia. While DS patients have structurally altered nucleus accumbens (NAcc) compared to non-deficit schizophrenia (NDS) patients and healthy individuals, the investigation of NAcc functional connectivity (FC) with negative symptoms and neurocognition could provide insights into the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. 58 DS, 93 NDS, and 113 healthy controls (HCs) underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance (rsfMRI). The right and left NAcc were respectively used as seed points to construct the functional NAcc network in whole-brain FC analysis. ANCOVA compared the differences in NAcc network FC and partial correlation analysis explored the relationships between altered FC of NAcc, negative symptoms and neurocognition. Compared to HCs, both DS and NDS patients showed decreased FC between the left NAcc (LNAcc) and bilateral middle cingulate gyrus, and between the right NAcc (RNAcc) and right middle frontal gyrus (RMFG), as well as increased FC between bilateral NAcc and bilateral lingual gyrus. Moreover, the FC between the LNAcc and bilateral calcarine gyrus (CAL) was lower in the DS group compared to NDS patients. Correlation analysis indicated that FC value of LNAcc-CAL was negatively correlated to negative symptoms. Furthermore, aberrant FC values within the NAcc network were correlated with severity of clinical symptoms and neurocognitive impairments in DS and NDS patients. This study demonstrated abnormal patterns of FC in the NAcc network between DS and NDS. The presence of altered LNAcc-CAL FC might be involved in the pathogenesis of negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

PMID:34658949 | PMC:PMC8514672 | DOI:10.3389/fpsyt.2021.704631

Altered Brain Functional Connectivity at Resting-State in Patients With Non-arteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

Mon, 10/18/2021 - 10:00

Front Neurosci. 2021 Oct 1;15:712256. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2021.712256. eCollection 2021.


Purpose: To investigate the possible changes in functional connectivity (FC) in patients with non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) using resting-state functional MRI (fMRI). Methods: Thirty-one NAION patients and 31 healthy controls were recruited and underwent resting-state fMRI scans. Regions of interest (ROIs) were defined as bilateral Brodmann's area 17 (BA17). FC analysis was performed between the ROIs and the rest of the brain regions, and the between group comparisons of FC were performed. We conducted correlation analysis between the FC changes and the clinical variables in NAION patients. Results: Compared with healthy controls, patients with NAION showed significantly decreased FC between the left BA17 and the right inferior frontal gyrus, left caudate nucleus. As for the right BA17, patients exhibited significantly increased FC with the left olfactory gyrus and decreased FC with the right superior frontal gyrus (SFG), right insula. Moreover, FC values between the right insula and the right BA17 were positively correlated with the right side of mean sensitivity in the central visual field (r = 0.52, P < 0.01) and negatively correlated with the right side of mean defect in the central visual field (r = -0.55, P < 0.01). Conclusion: Our study indicated that patients with NAION showed significantly abnormal functional reorganization between the primary visual cortex and several other brain regions not directly related to visual function, which supports that NAION may not only be an ophthalmic disease but also a neuro-ophthalmological disease.

PMID:34658763 | PMC:PMC8517223 | DOI:10.3389/fnins.2021.712256

Altered Hypothalamic Functional Connectivity Following Total Sleep Deprivation in Young Adult Males

Mon, 10/18/2021 - 10:00

Front Neurosci. 2021 Oct 1;15:688247. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2021.688247. eCollection 2021.


Background: Sleep deprivation can markedly influence vigilant attention that is essential to complex cognitive processes. The hypothalamus plays a critical role in arousal and attention regulation. However, the functional involvement of the hypothalamus in attentional impairments after total sleep deprivation (TSD) remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the alterations in hypothalamic functional connectivity and its association with the attentional performance following TSD. Methods: Thirty healthy adult males were recruited in the study. Participants underwent two resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) scans, once in rested wakefulness (RW) and once after 36 h of TSD. Seed-based functional connectivity analysis was performed using rs-fMRI for the left and right hypothalamus. Vigilant attention was measured using a psychomotor vigilance test (PVT). Furthermore, Pearson correlation analysis was conducted to investigate the relationship between altered hypothalamic functional connectivity and PVT performance after TSD. Results: After TSD, enhanced functional connectivity was observed between the left hypothalamus and bilateral thalamus, bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, right amygdala, and right insula, while reduced functional connectivity was observed between the left hypothalamus and bilateral middle frontal gyrus (AlphaSim corrected, P < 0.01). However, significant correlation between altered hypothalamic functional connectivity and PVT performance was not observed after Bonferroni correction (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Our results suggest that TSD can lead to disrupted hypothalamic circuits, which may provide new insight into neural mechanisms of attention impairments following sleep deprivation.

PMID:34658753 | PMC:PMC8517525 | DOI:10.3389/fnins.2021.688247