New resting-state fMRI related studies at PubMed

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A functional connectome phenotyping dataset including cognitive state and personality measures.

Wed, 02/13/2019 - 16:00
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A functional connectome phenotyping dataset including cognitive state and personality measures.

Sci Data. 2019 Feb 12;6:180307

Authors: Mendes N, Oligschläger S, Lauckner ME, Golchert J, Huntenburg JM, Falkiewicz M, Ellamil M, Krause S, Baczkowski BM, Cozatl R, Osoianu A, Kumral D, Pool J, Golz L, Dreyer M, Haueis P, Jost R, Kramarenko Y, Engen H, Ohrnberger K, Gorgolewski KJ, Farrugia N, Babayan A, Reiter A, Schaare HL, Reinelt J, Röbbig J, Uhlig M, Erbey M, Gaebler M, Smallwood J, Villringer A, Margulies DS

Abstract
The dataset enables exploration of higher-order cognitive faculties, self-generated mental experience, and personality features in relation to the intrinsic functional architecture of the brain. We provide multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data and a broad set of state and trait phenotypic assessments: mind-wandering, personality traits, and cognitive abilities. Specifically, 194 healthy participants (between 20 and 75 years of age) filled out 31 questionnaires, performed 7 tasks, and reported 4 probes of in-scanner mind-wandering. The scanning session included four 15.5-min resting-state functional MRI runs using a multiband EPI sequence and a hig h-resolution structural scan using a 3D MP2RAGE sequence. This dataset constitutes one part of the MPI-Leipzig Mind-Brain-Body database.

PMID: 30747913 [PubMed - in process]

A mind-brain-body dataset of MRI, EEG, cognition, emotion, and peripheral physiology in young and old adults.

Wed, 02/13/2019 - 16:00
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A mind-brain-body dataset of MRI, EEG, cognition, emotion, and peripheral physiology in young and old adults.

Sci Data. 2019 Feb 12;6:180308

Authors: Babayan A, Erbey M, Kumral D, Reinelt JD, Reiter AMF, Röbbig J, Schaare HL, Uhlig M, Anwander A, Bazin PL, Horstmann A, Lampe L, Nikulin VV, Okon-Singer H, Preusser S, Pampel A, Rohr CS, Sacher J, Thöne-Otto A, Trapp S, Nierhaus T, Altmann D, Arelin K, Blöchl M, Bongartz E, Breig P, Cesnaite E, Chen S, Cozatl R, Czerwonatis S, Dambrauskaite G, Dreyer M, Enders J, Engelhardt M, Fischer MM, Forschack N, Golchert J, Golz L, Guran CA, Hedrich S, Hentschel N, Hoffmann DI, Huntenburg JM, Jost R, Kosatschek A, Kunzendorf S, Lammers H, Lauckner ME, Mahjoory K, Kanaan AS, Mendes N, Menger R, Morino E, Näthe K, Neubauer J, Noyan H, Oligschläger S, Panczyszyn-Trzewik P, Poehlchen D, Putzke N, Roski S, Schaller MC, Schieferbein A, Schlaak B, Schmidt R, Gorgolewski KJ, Schmidt HM, Schrimpf A, Stasch S, Voss M, Wiedemann A, Margulies DS, Gaebler M, Villringer A

Abstract
We present a publicly available dataset of 227 healthy participants comprising a young (N=153, 25.1±3.1 years, range 20-35 years, 45 female) and an elderly group (N=74, 67.6±4.7 years, range 59-77 years, 37 female) acquired cross-sectionally in Leipzig, Germany, between 2013 and 2015 to study mind-body-emotion interactions. During a two-day assessment, participants completed MRI at 3 Tesla (resting-state fMRI, quantitative T1 (MP2RAGE), T2-weighted, FLAIR, SWI/QSM, DWI) and a 62-channel EEG experiment at rest. During task-free resting-state fMRI, cardiovascular measures (blood pressure, heart rate, pulse, respiration) were continuously acquired. Anthropometrics, blood samples, and urine drug tests were obtained. Psychiatric symptoms were identified with Standardized Clinical Interview for DSM IV (SCID-I), Hamilton Depression Scale, and Borderline Symptoms List. Psychological assessment comprised 6 cognitive tests as well as 21 questionnaires related to emotional behavior, personality traits and tendencies, eating behavior, and addictive behavior. We provide information on study design, methods, and details of the data. This dataset is part of the larger MPI Leipzig Mind-Brain-Body database.

PMID: 30747911 [PubMed - in process]

Offline impact of transcranial focused ultrasound on cortical activation in primates.

Wed, 02/13/2019 - 16:00
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Offline impact of transcranial focused ultrasound on cortical activation in primates.

Elife. 2019 Feb 12;8:

Authors: Verhagen L, Gallea C, Folloni D, Constans C, Jensen DE, Ahnine H, Roumazeilles L, Santin M, Ahmed B, Lehericy S, Klein-Flügge MC, Krug K, Mars RB, Rushworth MF, Pouget P, Aubry JF, Sallet J

Abstract
To understand brain circuits it is necessary both to record and manipulate their activity. Transcranial ultrasound stimulation (TUS) is a promising non-invasive brain stimulation technique. To date, investigations report short-lived neuromodulatory effects, but to deliver on its full potential for research and therapy, ultrasound protocols are required that induce longer-lasting 'offline' changes. Here, we present a TUS protocol that modulates brain activation in macaques for more than one hour after 40 s of stimulation, while circumventing auditory confounds. Normally activity in brain areas reflects activity in interconnected regions but TUS caused stimulated areas to interact more selectively with the rest of the brain. In a within-subject design, we observe regionally specific TUS effects for two medial frontal brain regions - supplementary motor area and frontal polar cortex. Independently of these site-specific effects, TUS also induced signal changes in the meningeal compartment. TUS effects were temporary and not associated with microstructural changes.

PMID: 30747105 [PubMed - in process]

Hierarchical Heterogeneity across Human Cortex Shapes Large-Scale Neural Dynamics.

Wed, 02/13/2019 - 16:00
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Hierarchical Heterogeneity across Human Cortex Shapes Large-Scale Neural Dynamics.

Neuron. 2019 Feb 05;:

Authors: Demirtaş M, Burt JB, Helmer M, Ji JL, Adkinson BD, Glasser MF, Van Essen DC, Sotiropoulos SN, Anticevic A, Murray JD

Abstract
The large-scale organization of dynamical neural activity across cortex emerges through long-range interactions among local circuits. We hypothesized that large-scale dynamics are also shaped by heterogeneity of intrinsic local properties across cortical areas. One key axis along which microcircuit properties are specialized relates to hierarchical levels of cortical organization. We developed a large-scale dynamical circuit model of human cortex that incorporates heterogeneity of local synaptic strengths, following a hierarchical axis inferred from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived T1- to T2-weighted (T1w/T2w) mapping and fit the model using multimodal neuroimaging data. We found that incorporating hierarchical heterogeneity substantially improves the model fit to functional MRI (fMRI)-measured resting-state functional connectivity and captures sensory-association organization of multiple fMRI features. The model predicts hierarchically organized higher-frequency spectral power, which we tested with resting-state magnetoencephalography. These findings suggest circuit-level mechanisms linking spatiotemporal levels of analysis and highlight the importance of local properties and their hierarchical specialization on the large-scale organization of human cortical dynamics.

PMID: 30744986 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Alexithymia and frontal-amygdala functional connectivity in North Korean refugees.

Wed, 02/13/2019 - 16:00
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Alexithymia and frontal-amygdala functional connectivity in North Korean refugees.

Psychol Med. 2019 Feb 12;:1-8

Authors: Kim N, Park I, Lee YJ, Jeon S, Kim S, Lee KH, Park J, Kim HK, Gwaq AR, Jun JY, Yoo SY, Lee SH, Kim SJ

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Refugees commonly experience difficulties with emotional processing, such as alexithymia, due to stressful or traumatic experiences. However, the functional connectivity of the amygdala, which is central to emotional processing, has yet to be assessed in refugees. Thus, the present study investigated the resting-state functional connectivity of the amygdala and its association with emotional processing in North Korean (NK) refugees.
METHODS: This study included 45 NK refugees and 40 native South Koreans (SK). All participants were administered the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Clinician-administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), and differences between NK refugees and native SK in terms of resting-state functional connectivity of the amygdala were assessed. Additionally, the association between the strength of amygdala connectivity and the TAS score was examined.
RESULTS: Resting-state connectivity values from the left amygdala to the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) were higher in NK refugees than in native SK. Additionally, the strength of connectivity between the left amygdala and right dlPFC was positively associated with TAS score after controlling for the number of traumatic experiences and BDI and CAPS scores.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study found that NK refugees exhibited heightened frontal-amygdala connectivity, and that this connectivity was correlated with alexithymia. The present results suggest that increased frontal-amygdala connectivity in refugees may represent frontal down-regulation of the amygdala, which in turn may produce alexithymia.

PMID: 30744720 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Increased amygdala-visual cortex connectivity in youth with persecutory ideation.

Wed, 02/13/2019 - 16:00
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Increased amygdala-visual cortex connectivity in youth with persecutory ideation.

Psychol Med. 2019 Feb 12;:1-11

Authors: DeCross SN, Farabaugh AH, Holmes AJ, Ward M, Boeke EA, Wolthusen RPF, Coombs G, Nyer M, Fava M, Buckner RL, Holt DJ

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Subclinical delusional ideas, including persecutory beliefs, in otherwise healthy individuals are heritable symptoms associated with increased risk for psychotic illness, possibly representing an expression of one end of a continuum of psychosis severity. The identification of variation in brain function associated with these symptoms may provide insights about the neurobiology of delusions in clinical psychosis.
METHODS: A resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan was collected from 131 young adults with a wide range of severity of subclinical delusional beliefs, including persecutory ideas. Because of evidence for a key role of the amygdala in fear and paranoia, resting-state functional connectivity of the amygdala was measured.
RESULTS: Connectivity between the amygdala and early visual cortical areas, including striate cortex (V1), was found to be significantly greater in participants with high (n = 43) v. low (n = 44) numbers of delusional beliefs, particularly in those who showed persistence of those beliefs. Similarly, across the full sample, the number of and distress associated with delusional beliefs were positively correlated with the strength of amygdala-visual cortex connectivity. Moreover, further analyses revealed that these effects were driven by those who endorsed persecutory beliefs.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that aberrant assignments of threat to sensory stimuli may lead to the downstream development of delusional ideas. Taken together with prior findings of disrupted sensory-limbic coupling in psychosis, these results suggest that altered amygdala-visual cortex connectivity could represent a marker of psychosis-related pathophysiology across a continuum of symptom severity.

PMID: 30744715 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Variation in the CACNB2 gene is associated with functional connectivity of the Hippocampus in bipolar disorder.

Wed, 02/13/2019 - 16:00
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Variation in the CACNB2 gene is associated with functional connectivity of the Hippocampus in bipolar disorder.

BMC Psychiatry. 2019 Feb 11;19(1):62

Authors: Liu F, Gong X, Yao X, Cui L, Yin Z, Li C, Tang Y, Wang F

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Calcium voltage-gated channel auxiliary subunit β2 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the CACNB2 gene. The β2 subunit is an auxiliary protein of voltage-gated calcium channels, which is predominantly expressed in hippocampal pyramidal neurons. A single-nucleotide polymorphism at the CACNB2 gene (rs11013860) has been reported in genome-wide association studies to be associated with bipolar disorder (BD). However, the neural effects of rs11013860 expression are unknown. Thus, the current study investigated the mechanisms of how the CACNB2 gene influences hippocampal-cortical limbic circuits in patients with bipolar disorder (BD).
METHODS: A total of 202 subjects were studied [69 BD patients and 133 healthy controls (HC)]. Participants agreed to undergo resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and have blood drawn for genetic testing. Participants were found to belong to either a CC group homozygous for the C-allele (17 BD, 41 HC), or an A-carrier group carrying the high risk A-allele (AA/CA genotypes; 52 BD, 92 HC). Brain activity was assessed using resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) analyses.
RESULTS: A main effect of genotype showed that the rs-FC of the AA/CA group was elevated more than that of the CC-group between the hippocampus and the regions of right-inferior temporal, fusiform, and left-inferior occipital gyri. Additionally, a significant diagnosis × genotype interaction was noted between the hippocampus and right pars triangularis. Furthermore, in BD patients, the AA/CA group showed lower rs-FC when compared to that of the CC group. Additionally, individuals from HC within the AA/CA group showed higher rs-FC than that of the CC group. Finally, within C-allele-carrying groups, individuals with BD showed significantly increased rs-FC compared to that of HC.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that BD patients with the CACNB2 rs11013860 AA/CA genotype may exhibit altered hippocampal-cortical connectivity.

PMID: 30744588 [PubMed - in process]

Psychiatric research in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 - a systematic review.

Wed, 02/13/2019 - 16:00
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Psychiatric research in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 - a systematic review.

Int J Circumpolar Health. 2019 Dec;78(1):1571382

Authors: Miettunen J, Haapea M, Björnholm L, Huhtaniska S, Juola T, Kinnunen L, Lehtiniemi H, Lieslehto J, Rautio N, Nordström T

Abstract
The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 is a large population-based birth cohort, which aims to promote health and wellbeing of the population. In this paper, we systematically review the psychiatric research performed in the cohort until today, i.e. at the age of 32 years of the cohort (2018). We conducted a systematic literature search using the databases of PubMed and Scopus and complemented it with a manual search. We found a total of 94 articles, which were classified as examining ADHD, emotional and behavioural problems, psychosis risk or other studies relating to psychiatric subjects. The articles are mainly based on two large comprehensive follow-up studies of the cohort and several substudies. The studies have often used also nationwide register data. The studies have found several early predictors for the aforementioned psychiatric outcomes, such as problems at pregnancy and birth, family factors in childhood, physical inactivity and substance use in adolescence. There are also novel findings relating to brain imaging and cognition, for instance regarding familial risk of psychosis in relation to resting state functional MRI. The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 has been utilised frequently in psychiatric research and future data collections are likely to lead to new scientifically important findings. Abbreviations: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

PMID: 30744507 [PubMed - in process]

Habenular connectivity may predict treatment response in depressed psychiatric inpatients.

Wed, 02/13/2019 - 16:00
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Habenular connectivity may predict treatment response in depressed psychiatric inpatients.

J Affect Disord. 2019 01 01;242:211-219

Authors: Gosnell SN, Curtis KN, Velasquez K, Fowler JC, Madan A, Goodman W, Salas R

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: The habenula (Hb) is a small midbrain structure that signals negative events and may play a major role in the etiology of psychiatric disorders including depression. The lateral Hb has three major efferent connections: serotonergic raphe nuclei, noradrenergic locus coeruleus, and dopaminergic ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra compacta. We wanted to test whether Hb connectivity may be important to predict treatment outcomes in depression patients.
METHODS: We studied whether habenular connectivity at admission into a psychiatric clinic can predict treatment response. We used an inpatient sample (N = 175) to assess habenular connectivity (diffusion tensor imaging and resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) between the Hb and its targets) close to admission. In addition, we obtained the Patient Health Questionnaire-depression module (PHQ-9) close to admission and at discharge. Inpatients in the study entered the clinic with at least moderately severe depression (score 15 and up). Inpatients considered treatment resistant had scores of 9 or more at discharge.
RESULTS: Compared to responders, treatment non-responders had lower fractional anisotropy in the right Hb afferent fibers and lower RSFC between right Hb and median raphe, but higher RSFC between left Hb and locus coeruleus. A logistic regression model was significantly different from chance, and explained 27.7% of the variance in treatment resistance (sensitivity = 75%; specificity = 71.9%).
DISCUSSION: The anatomical and functional connectivity of the Hb may be a predictor of treatment success in psychiatric populations. Limitations include the Hb small size and the limited time (5 min) of resting state data obtained.

PMID: 30195174 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Altered functional connectivity in blepharospasm/orofacial dystonia.

Wed, 02/13/2019 - 16:00
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Altered functional connectivity in blepharospasm/orofacial dystonia.

Brain Behav. 2018 01;8(1):e00894

Authors: Jochim A, Li Y, Gora-Stahlberg G, Mantel T, Berndt M, Castrop F, Dresel C, Haslinger B

Abstract
Introduction: Blepharospasm is characterized by involuntary eyelid spasms. It can be associated with perioral dystonia (Meige's syndrome or orofacial dystonia). We aimed at studying resting-state functional brain connectivity in these patients and its potential modulation by therapeutic botulinum toxin injections.
Methods: We performed resting-state functional MRI and a region of interest-based analysis of functional connectivity in 13 patients with blepharospasm/Meige's syndrome in comparison to 13 healthy controls. Patients were studied before and 4 weeks after botulinum toxin treatment. Simultaneous facial electromyography was applied to control for involuntary facial movements.
Results: Before botulinum toxin treatment, patients showed reduced functional connectivity between caudate and primary sensorimotor, somatosensory association and visual cortices as well as between putamen and parietal association cortex. Cerebellar areas displayed decreased functional connectivity to somatosensory and visual association cortices. On the cortical level, connectivity was reduced between the cingulate cortex and the primary sensorimotor/premotor and parietal association cortex, between premotor areas and the primary somatosensory cortices, and between the postcentral gyrus and temporoparietal, secondary somatosensory, cingular, and cerebellar regions. Botulinum toxin treatment modulated functional connectivity, especially between cerebellum and visual cortices.
Conclusions: Patients with blepharospasm/Meige's syndrome show altered functional connectivity at rest in widespread brain regions including basal ganglia, cerebellar, primary/secondary sensorimotor, and visual areas. Functionally, this may reflect a predisposition for defective movement inhibition and sensorimotor integration. Botulinum toxin treatment could modulate brain connectivity in blepharospasm by altering visual and sensory input.

PMID: 29568690 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Task-residual functional connectivity of language and attention networks.

Wed, 02/13/2019 - 16:00
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Task-residual functional connectivity of language and attention networks.

Brain Cogn. 2018 04;122:52-58

Authors: Tran SM, McGregor KM, James GA, Gopinath K, Krishnamurthy V, Krishnamurthy LC, Crosson B

Abstract
Functional connectivity using task-residual data capitalizes on remaining variance after mean task-related signal is removed from a time series. The degree of network specificity in language and attention domains featured by task-residual and resting-state data types were compared. Functional connectivity based on task-residual data evidenced stronger laterality of the language and attention connections and thus greater network specificity compared to resting-state functional connectivity of the same connections. Covariance between network nodes of task-residuals may thus reflect the degree to which two regions are coordinated in their specific activity, rather than a general shared co-activation. Task-residual functional connectivity provides complementary data to that of resting-state, emphasizing network relationships during task engagement.

PMID: 29471283 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Musical training induces functional and structural auditory-motor network plasticity in young adults.

Wed, 02/13/2019 - 16:00
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Musical training induces functional and structural auditory-motor network plasticity in young adults.

Hum Brain Mapp. 2018 05;39(5):2098-2110

Authors: Li Q, Wang X, Wang S, Xie Y, Li X, Xie Y, Li S

Abstract
Playing music requires a strong coupling of perception and action mediated by multimodal integration of brain regions, which can be described as network connections measured by anatomical and functional correlations between regions. However, the structural and functional connectivities within and between the auditory and sensorimotor networks after long-term musical training remain largely uninvestigated. Here, we compared the structural connectivity (SC) and resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) within and between the two networks in 29 novice healthy young adults before and after musical training (piano) with those of another 27 novice participants who were evaluated longitudinally but with no intervention. In addition, a correlation analysis was performed between the changes in FC or SC with practice time in the training group. As expected, participants in the training group showed increased FC within the sensorimotor network and increased FC and SC of the auditory-motor network after musical training. Interestingly, we further found that the changes in FC within the sensorimotor network and SC of the auditory-motor network were positively correlated with practice time. Our results indicate that musical training could induce enhanced local interaction and global integration between musical performance-related regions, which provides insights into the mechanism of brain plasticity in young adults.

PMID: 29400420 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Investigation of the emotional network in depression after stroke: A study of multivariate Granger causality analysis of fMRI data.

Tue, 02/12/2019 - 14:40
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Investigation of the emotional network in depression after stroke: A study of multivariate Granger causality analysis of fMRI data.

J Affect Disord. 2019 Feb 06;249:35-44

Authors: Shi Y, Liu W, Liu R, Zeng Y, Wu L, Huang S, Cai G, Yang J, Wu W

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Depression after stroke (DAS) is a serious complication of stroke that significantly restricts rehabilitation. Brain imaging technology is an important method for studying the emotional network of DAS. However, few studies have focused on dynamic interactions within the network. The aim of this study was to investigate the emotional network of frontal lobe DAS using the multivariate Granger causality analysis (GCA) method, a technique that can estimate the association among the brain areas to analyze functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data collected from DAS and no depression after stroke (NDAS).
METHOD: Thirty-six first-time ischemic right frontal lobe stroke patients underwent resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) scans. The clinical assessment scale used for screening subjects was as follows: the 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-24), the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and the Barthel Index (BI). The multivariate GCA method was used to analyze fMRI data collected from DAS and NDAS.
RESULTS: The results showed positive regulations in the order from the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and the amygdala (AMYG) to the thalamus, and when the interaction order is opposite, the moderating effect is negative. The thalamus could predict the negative activity of the insular (IC) via the ACC. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) could predict the activity of the ACC via the temporal pole (TP).
CONCLUSION: This study found a VMPFC-ACC-AMYG-thalamus emotional circuit to explain the network between different brain regions associated with DAS. The DLPFC and TP play an important role in the emotional regulation of DAS, and the function of the IC is regulated negatively by the thalamus. These findings advance the neural theory of DAS, which is based on the functional relationship between different brain areas.

PMID: 30743020 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Correspondence between cerebral glucose metabolism and BOLD reveals relative power and cost in human brain.

Tue, 02/12/2019 - 14:40
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Correspondence between cerebral glucose metabolism and BOLD reveals relative power and cost in human brain.

Nat Commun. 2019 Feb 11;10(1):690

Authors: Shokri-Kojori E, Tomasi D, Alipanahi B, Wiers CE, Wang GJ, Volkow ND

Abstract
The correspondence between cerebral glucose metabolism (indexing energy utilization) and synchronous fluctuations in blood oxygenation (indexing neuronal activity) is relevant for neuronal specialization and is affected by brain disorders. Here, we define novel measures of relative power (rPWR, extent of concurrent energy utilization and activity) and relative cost (rCST, extent that energy utilization exceeds activity), derived from FDG-PET and fMRI. We show that resting-state networks have distinct energetic signatures and that brain could be classified into major bilateral segments based on rPWR and rCST. While medial-visual and default-mode networks have the highest rPWR, frontoparietal networks have the highest rCST. rPWR and rCST estimates are generalizable to other indexes of energy supply and neuronal activity, and are sensitive to neurocognitive effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure. rPWR and rCST are informative metrics for characterizing brain pathology and alternative energy use, and may provide new multimodal biomarkers of neuropsychiatric disorders.

PMID: 30741935 [PubMed - in process]

Thought Control Ability Moderates the Effect of Mind Wandering on Positive Affect via the Frontoparietal Control Network.

Tue, 02/12/2019 - 14:40
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Thought Control Ability Moderates the Effect of Mind Wandering on Positive Affect via the Frontoparietal Control Network.

Front Psychol. 2018;9:2791

Authors: He H, Chen Q, Wei D, Shi L, Qiu J

Abstract
Mind wandering is a phenomenon that involves thoughts shifting away from a primary task to the process of dealing with other personal goals. A large number of studies have found that mind wandering can predict negative emotions, but researchers have seldom focused on the positive role of mind wandering. The current study aimed to explore the relationships among mind wandering, emotions and thought control ability, which is the ability to inhibit one's own unpleasant or unwanted intrusive thoughts. Here, we collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data from 368 participants who completed a set of questionnaires involving mind wandering, thought control ability and positive or negative emotions. The results revealed that (1) rsfMRI connectivity features related to thought control ability and mind wandering could divide individuals into two groups: HMW (high mind-wandering) group and LMW (low mind-wandering) group. The HMW group scored lower in thought control ability (TCA), higher in negative emotion (NE) and lower in positive emotion (PE) than the LMW group. (2) TCA moderated the association between MW and positive affect (PA). (3) Two groups exhibited different segregation within key nodes (SWKN) of the frontoparietal control network (FPCN), and the subsequent analysis showed that the SWKN of the FPCN was negatively correlated with PA. These findings indicate that TCA moderates the effect of mind wandering on affect via the FPCN, which may have important implications for our understanding of the positive role of mind wandering.

PMID: 30740082 [PubMed]

Accelerated Aging of Functional Brain Networks Supporting Cognitive Function in Psychotic Disorders.

Tue, 02/12/2019 - 14:40
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Accelerated Aging of Functional Brain Networks Supporting Cognitive Function in Psychotic Disorders.

Biol Psychiatry. 2019 Jan 04;:

Authors: Sheffield JM, Rogers BP, Blackford JU, Heckers S, Woodward ND

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Across networks, connectivity within the frontoparietal network (FPN) and cingulo-opercular network (CON) exhibits reductions earliest during healthy aging, contributing to cognitive impairment. Individuals with psychotic disorders demonstrate evidence of accelerated aging across multiple biological systems. By leveraging a large sample of patients with psychosis from early to chronic illness stages, this study sought to determine whether the CON and FPN exhibit evidence of accelerated aging in psychotic disorders, confirm associations between network efficiency and cognition, and determine whether reduced network efficiency is observed in early-stage psychosis.
METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive data were obtained on 240 patients with psychotic disorder and 178 healthy control participants (HCs). Global efficiency, a measure of functional integration, was calculated for the CON, FPN, subcortical network, and visual network. Associations with age and cognition were assessed and compared between groups.
RESULTS: Consistent with accelerated aging, significant group by age interactions reflected significantly stronger relationships between efficiency and age in patients with psychosis than in HCs for both the CON (psychosis: r = -.37; HC: r = -.16) and FPN (psychosis: r = -.31; HC: r = -.05). Accelerated aging was not observed in either the subcortical or visual network, suggesting specificity for cognitive networks that decline earliest in healthy aging. Replicating prior findings, efficiency of both the CON and FPN correlated with cognitive function across all participants (rs > .11, ps < .031). Furthermore, patients with chronic psychosis (p = .004), but not patients with early psychosis (p = .553), exhibited significantly lower FPN efficiency compared with HCs.
CONCLUSIONS: Functional integration of higher-order cognitive networks is intact in early psychosis but exhibits evidence of accelerated aging, suggesting the potential for intervention targeting cognition within the early psychosis period.

PMID: 30739807 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Recover from the adversity: functional connectivity basis of psychological resilience.

Tue, 02/12/2019 - 14:40
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Recover from the adversity: functional connectivity basis of psychological resilience.

Neuropsychologia. 2019 01;122:20-27

Authors: Shi L, Sun J, Wei D, Qiu J

Abstract
Psychological resilience refers to the ability that individuals can positively adapt and respond to stress and adversity. It is important for mental health and well-being. However, there was few study examined the functional connectivity basis of psychological resilience. The present study used resting-state seed-based functional connectivity to explore the neural basis of psychological resilience and its association with positive affect in a big healthy sample. Results showed that resilience is associated with functional connectivity between regions involved in emotional flexibility, coping ability, and inhibitory control. Specifically, resilience is positively correlated with the strength of the left insula and the right parahippocampus connectivity which is involved in the self-evaluation process. It is also positively correlated with the strength of the left orbitofrontal gyrus (OFC) and the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) connectivity which is associated with the flexible use of emotional resources and flexible control in processing affective information. Additionally, resilience is negatively correlated with the strength of the left OFC and the right precuneus connectivity which is implicated in the rumination in negatively self-related thoughts. Crucially, the left OFC-IFG connectivity mediated the effect of positive affect on resilience, supporting the opinion that positive affect facilitates resilience by broadening one's attention and promoting flexible thinking and coping abilities. In summary, these findings extend previous studies by revealing the functional connectivity basis of psychological resilience and highlighting the left OFC-IFG connectivity as a neural substrate linking positive affect and psychological resilience.

PMID: 30529246 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Anxious brain networks: A coordinate-based activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of resting-state functional connectivity studies in anxiety.

Tue, 02/12/2019 - 14:40
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Anxious brain networks: A coordinate-based activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of resting-state functional connectivity studies in anxiety.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2019 01;96:21-30

Authors: Xu J, Van Dam NT, Feng C, Luo Y, Ai H, Gu R, Xu P

Abstract
Anxiety and anxiety disorders are associated with specific alterations to functional brain networks, including intra-networks and inter-networks. Given the heterogeneity within anxiety disorders and inconsistencies in functional network differences across studies, identifying common patterns of altered brain networks in anxiety is imperative. Here, we conducted an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of resting-state functional connectivity studies in anxiety and anxiety disorders (including 835 individuals with different levels of anxiety or anxiety disorders and 508 controls). Results show that anxiety can be characterized by hypo-connectivity of the affective network with executive control network (ECN) and default mode network (DMN), as well as decoupling of the ECN with the DMN. The connectivity within the salience network and its connectivity with sensorimotor network are also attenuated. These results reveal consistent dysregulations of affective and cognitive control related networks over networks related to emotion processing in anxiety and anxiety disorders. The current findings provide an empirical foundation for an integrated model of brain network alterations that are common across anxiety and anxiety disorders.

PMID: 30452934 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Neural correlates of semantic and phonological processing revealed by functional connectivity patterns in the language network.

Tue, 02/12/2019 - 14:40
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Neural correlates of semantic and phonological processing revealed by functional connectivity patterns in the language network.

Neuropsychologia. 2018 12;121:47-57

Authors: Yu M, Wu Z, Luan M, Wang X, Song Y, Liu J

Abstract
Semantics and phonology are fundamental components of language. Neuroimaging studies have identified a language network (LN) that is distributed through multiple regions and exhibits preferential responses to semantic and phonological information. However, it is unclear how these regions work collaboratively to support the processing of these components. In the present study, we first defined the LN as voxels that responded more to sentences than to strings of Chinese pseudo-characters. We subsequently used a voxel-based global brain connectivity method based on resting-state functional connectivity (FC) to characterize the neural correlates of semantic and phonological processing. We specifically correlated the within-network connectivity (WNC) of each voxel in the LN with the participants' scores on the semantic and phonological components extracted from a battery of reading tests via principal component analysis. We found that individuals with stronger WNC in the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (lpSTG) and anterior superior temporal gyrus (laSTG) were better at semantic and phonological processing, respectively. Furthermore, the FC of the lpSTG with the laSTG and bilateral fusiform gyrus mainly contributed to semantic processing, whereas the FC of the laSTG with the left posterior middle temporal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus largely contributed to phonological processing. Importantly, the semantic and phonological subnetworks overlapped in the laSTG, the WNC of which correlated with the participants' performances during semantic-phonological interactions. Our study revealed the hub and subnetwork for semantic and phonological processing, respectively, and highlighted the role of the laSTG in semantic-phonological interactions.

PMID: 30391566 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Subgenual anterior cingulate-insula resting-state connectivity as a neural correlate to trait and state stress resilience.

Tue, 02/12/2019 - 14:40
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Subgenual anterior cingulate-insula resting-state connectivity as a neural correlate to trait and state stress resilience.

Brain Cogn. 2018 07;124:73-81

Authors: Shao R, Lau WKW, Leung MK, Lee TMC

Abstract
Accumulating evidence indicates important roles of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex and rostral limbic regions such as the anterior insula, in regulating stress-related affective responses and negative affect states in general. However, research is lacking in simultaneously assessing the inter-relations between trait and state affective responses to stress, and the functional connectivity between the subgenual anterior cingulate and anterior insula. This preliminary research involved matched healthy participants with high (N = 10) and low (N = 10) self-reported trait stress resilience, and assessed their affective and subgenual anterior cingulate-anterior insula resting-state functional connectivity patterns before and after a psychosocial stress task. We found that while the low-resilience group displayed higher trait negative affect and perceived greater task-related stress, only the high-resilience group showed increase of negative affect, along with greater decrease of left subgenual anterior cingulate-right anterior insula connectivity, following stress induction. Moreover, the functional connectivity change mediated group difference in affect change following stress task. We speculate that the contingent increase of negative affect, and the associated temporary decoupling of subgenual anterior cingulate-insula circuitry, may represent a normative and adaptive stress response underpinned by adaptive and dynamic interplay between the default mode and salience networks. Such findings, if consolidated, have important implications for promoting stress resilience and reducing risk for stress-related affective disorders.

PMID: 29758439 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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