New resting-state fMRI related studies at PubMed

Subscribe to New resting-state fMRI related studies at PubMed feed New resting-state fMRI related studies at PubMed
NCBI: db=pubmed; Term=resting state fMRI
Updated: 5 months 2 days ago

Short-term Sahaja Yoga meditation training modulates brain structure and spontaneous activity in the executive control network.

Fri, 11/30/2018 - 21:20
Related Articles

Short-term Sahaja Yoga meditation training modulates brain structure and spontaneous activity in the executive control network.

Brain Behav. 2018 Nov 28;:e01159

Authors: Dodich A, Zollo M, Crespi C, Cappa SF, Laureiro Martinez D, Falini A, Canessa N

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: While cross-sectional studies have shown neural changes in long-term meditators, they might be confounded by self-selection and potential baseline differences between meditators and non meditators. Prospective longitudinal studies of the effects of meditation in naïve subjects are more conclusive with respect to causal inferences, but related evidence is so far limited.
METHODS: Here, we assessed the effects of a 4-week Sahaja Yoga meditation training on gray matter density and spontaneous resting-state brain activity in a group of 12 meditation-naïve healthy adults.
RESULTS: Compared with 30 control subjects, the participants to meditation training showed increased gray matter density and changes in the coherence of intrinsic brain activity in two adjacent regions of the right inferior frontal gyrus encompassing the anterior component of the executive control network. Both these measures correlated with self-reported well-being scores in the meditation group.
CONCLUSIONS: The significant impact of a brief meditation training on brain regions associated with attention, self-control, and self-awareness may reflect the engagement of cognitive control skills in searching for a state of mental silence, a distinctive feature of Sahaja Yoga meditation. The manifold implications of these findings involve both managerial and rehabilitative settings concerned with well-being and emotional state in normal and pathological conditions.

PMID: 30485713 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Low rank and sparsity constrained method for identifying overlapping functional brain networks.

Fri, 11/30/2018 - 21:20
Related Articles

Low rank and sparsity constrained method for identifying overlapping functional brain networks.

PLoS One. 2018;13(11):e0208068

Authors: Aggarwal P, Gupta A

Abstract
Analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data has revealed that brain regions can be grouped into functional brain networks (fBNs) or communities. A community in fMRI analysis signifies a group of brain regions coupled functionally with one another. In neuroimaging, functional connectivity (FC) measure can be utilized to quantify such functionally connected regions for disease diagnosis and hence, signifies the need of devising novel FC estimation methods. In this paper, we propose a novel method of learning FC by constraining its rank and the sum of non-zero coefficients. The underlying idea is that fBNs are sparse and can be embedded in a relatively lower dimension space. In addition, we propose to extract overlapping networks. In many instances, communities are characterized as combinations of disjoint brain regions, although recent studies indicate that brain regions may participate in more than one community. In this paper, large-scale overlapping fBNs are identified on resting state fMRI data by employing non-negative matrix factorization. Our findings support the existence of overlapping brain networks.

PMID: 30485369 [PubMed - in process]

Brain functional changes in patients with botulism after illegal cosmetic injections of botulinum toxin: A resting-state fMRI study.

Fri, 11/30/2018 - 21:20
Related Articles

Brain functional changes in patients with botulism after illegal cosmetic injections of botulinum toxin: A resting-state fMRI study.

PLoS One. 2018;13(11):e0207448

Authors: Li GF, Ban S, Wang M, Zhang J, Lu H, Shi YH, He XW, Wu YL, Peng P, Liu YS, Zhuang MT, Zhao R, Shen XL, Li Q, Liu JR, Du X

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) is generally considered safe and is widely used to treat a variety of clinical conditions involving muscle hyperactivity and for cosmetic purposes. However, the effects of BoNT-A poisoning (botulism) on brain function are poorly understood.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Herein, we investigated brain functions in 9 patients who received illegal cosmetic injections of botulinum and 18 matched controls by combining the analysis methods of regional homogeneity (ReHo) and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) based on resting-state fMRI. Compared with the controls, the patients with botulism exhibited significantly reduced ReHo values in the left posterior lobe of the cerebellum extending to the right anterior lobe of the cerebellum, as well as in the right anterior lobe of the cerebellum extending to the parahippocampal gyrus and right posterior lobe of the cerebellum. The patients with botulism also showed weakened ALFF values in the right anterior lobe of the cerebellum extending to the left anterior lobe of the cerebellum and right posterior lobe of the cerebellum, as well as in the right anterior lobe of the cerebellum.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results indicate that BoNT-A may modulate cerebral activation in specific areas, which may play roles in both the adverse effects of botulism and the mechanism underlying clinical treatment with BoNT-A.

PMID: 30485326 [PubMed - in process]

Editorial. Resting-state fMRI for the masses.

Fri, 11/30/2018 - 21:20
Related Articles

Editorial. Resting-state fMRI for the masses.

J Neurosurg. 2018 Oct 01;:1-2

Authors:

PMID: 30485226 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

ReStNeuMap: a tool for automatic extraction of resting-state functional MRI networks in neurosurgical practice.

Fri, 11/30/2018 - 21:20
Related Articles

ReStNeuMap: a tool for automatic extraction of resting-state functional MRI networks in neurosurgical practice.

J Neurosurg. 2018 Oct 01;:1-8

Authors:

Abstract
OBJECTIVEResting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) represents a promising and cost-effective alternative to task-based fMRI for presurgical mapping. However, the lack of clinically streamlined and reliable rs-fMRI analysis tools has prevented wide adoption of this technique. In this work, the authors introduce an rs-fMRI processing pipeline (ReStNeuMap) for automatic single-patient rs-fMRI network analysis.METHODSThe authors provide a description of the rs-fMRI network analysis steps implemented in ReStNeuMap and report their initial experience with this tool after performing presurgical mapping in 6 patients. They verified the spatial agreement between rs-fMRI networks derived by ReStNeuMap and localization of activation with intraoperative direct electrical stimulation (DES).RESULTSThe authors automatically extracted rs-fMRI networks including eloquent cortex in spatial proximity with the resected lesion in all patients. The distance between DES points and corresponding rs-fMRI networks was less than 1 cm in 78% of cases for motor, 100% of cases for visual, 87.5% of cases for language, and 100% of cases for speech articulation mapping.CONCLUSIONSThe authors' initial experience with ReStNeuMap showed good spatial agreement between presurgical rs-fMRI predictions and DES findings during awake surgery. The availability of the rs-fMRI analysis tools for clinicians aiming to perform noninvasive mapping of brain functional networks may extend its application beyond surgical practice.

PMID: 30485221 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Language lateralization with resting-state and task-based functional MRI in pediatric epilepsy.

Fri, 11/30/2018 - 21:20
Related Articles

Language lateralization with resting-state and task-based functional MRI in pediatric epilepsy.

J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2018 Oct 01;:1-7

Authors:

Abstract
OBJECTIVEDetermining language laterality in patients with intractable epilepsy is important in operative planning. Wada testing is the gold standard, but it has a risk of stroke. Both Wada and task-based functional MRI (tb-fMRI) require patient cooperation. Recently, resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) has been explored for language lateralization. In the present study, the correlation between rs-fMRI and tb-fMRI in language lateralization is estimated in a pediatric population with intractable epilepsy.METHODSrs-fMRI and tb-fMRI language lateralization testing performed as part of epilepsy surgery evaluation was retrospectively reviewed.RESULTSTwenty-nine patients underwent rs-fMRI and tb-fMRI; a total of 38 rs-fMRI studies and 30 tb-fMRI studies were obtained. tb-fMRI suggested left dominance in 25 of 30 cases (83%), right in 3 (10%), and in 2 (7%) the studies were nondiagnostic. In rs-fMRI, 26 of 38 studies (68%) suggested left dominance, 3 (8%) right dominance, 6 (16%) bilateral, and 3 (8%) were nondiagnostic. When tb-fMRI lateralized to the left hemisphere (25 cases), rs-fMRI was lateralized to the left in 23 patients (92%) and it was bilateral/equal in 2 (8%). When tb-fMRI lateralized to the right (3 cases), rs-fMRI lateralized to the right in all cases (100%). The overall concordance rate was 0.93 (95% CI 0.76-0.99) when considering cases with tb-fMRI and rs-fMRI performed within 6 months of each other, and tb-fMRI results were not nondiagnostic.CONCLUSIONSrs-fMRI significantly correlated with tb-fMRI in lateralizing language and suggests the potential role for identifying hemispheric dominance via rs-fMRI. Further investigation and validation studies are warranted.

PMID: 30485177 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Moderating Effects of Harm Avoidance on Resting-State Functional Connectivity of the Anterior Insula.

Fri, 11/30/2018 - 21:20
Related Articles

Moderating Effects of Harm Avoidance on Resting-State Functional Connectivity of the Anterior Insula.

Front Hum Neurosci. 2018;12:447

Authors: Huggins AA, Belleau EL, Miskovich TA, Pedersen WS, Larson CL

Abstract
As an index of behavioral inhibition and an individual's propensity to avoid, rather than seek, potentially dangerous situations, harm avoidance has been linked to internalizing psychopathology. Altered connectivity within intrinsic functional neural networks (i.e., default mode [DMN], central executive [CEN] and salience networks [SN]) has been related to internalizing psychopathology; however, less is known about the effects of harm avoidance on functional connectivity within and between these networks. Importantly, harm avoidance may be distinguishable from trait anxiety and have clinical relevance as a risk factor for internalizing psychopathology. A sample of young adults (n = 99) completed a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan and self-report measures of harm avoidance and trait anxiety. Whole brain seed-to-voxel and seed-to-network connectivity analyses were conducted using anterior insula seeds to examine associations between harm avoidance/trait anxiety and connectivity. After adjusting for sex and age, there was a significant negative effect of harm avoidance on connectivity between the anterior insula and clusters in the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) left superior/middle frontal gyrus, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and bilateral inferior parietal lobule (IPL)/angular gyrus. Seed-to-network analyses indicated a negative effect of harm avoidance on connectivity between the right anterior insula and anterior and posterior DMN. There were no effects of trait anxiety on functional connectivity of the anterior insula. Overall, the results indicate that individual differences in harm avoidance relate to disruptions in internetwork connectivity that may contribute to deficits in appropriately modulating attentional focus.

PMID: 30483082 [PubMed]

Alternations of interhemispheric functional connectivity in corneal ulcer patients using voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity: a resting state fMRI study.

Fri, 11/30/2018 - 21:20
Related Articles

Alternations of interhemispheric functional connectivity in corneal ulcer patients using voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity: a resting state fMRI study.

Acta Radiol. 2018 Nov 27;:284185118815308

Authors: Shi WQ, Liu JX, Yuan Q, Ye L, Su T, Jiang N, Lin Q, Min YL, Li B, Zhu PW, Xu XW, Shao Y

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Corneal ulcer (CU) is the second ocular disease leading to blindness. Millions of people around the world suffer from CU. However, the relationship between CU and altered functional connectivity in the brain is still unknown.
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the alterations of the brain interhemispheric functional connectivity (FC) in patients with CU using the voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) method and their relationship with clinical manifestations.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The present study involved 24 patients with CU (12 men, 12 women) and 24 healthy controls (HCs) with their age, sex, and weight closely matched. Independent sample t-test, VMHC method, and Pearson's correlation analysis were applied. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to estimate the effect in distinguishing CU patients from HCs.
RESULTS: The CU patients showed decreased VMHC values in bilateral lingual/calcarine, precentral/postcentral gyrus, and medial frontal gyrus compared with HCs. There were positive correlations between Visual Analogue Score (VAS) and VMHC values of bilateral media frontal gyrus ( r = 0.654, p = 0.001), the best-corrected VA of the affected eye and VMHC values of the bilateral lingual/calcarine region ( r = 0.960, p < 0.001). ROC curve also showed high diagnostic values in those regions.
CONCLUSION: Our study was the first to explore FC changes in CU patients' brains using VMHC methods. We demonstrated that ocular pain of CU patients had a close relationship with altered VMHC values. Decreased VMHC values in the brain of CU patients may be useful markers to reflect the condition of progress in patients with CU.

PMID: 30482026 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Behavioral and Functional Connectivity Basis for Peer-Influenced Bystander Participation in Bullying.

Wed, 11/28/2018 - 13:20
Related Articles

Behavioral and Functional Connectivity Basis for Peer-Influenced Bystander Participation in Bullying.

Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2018 Nov 27;:

Authors: Takami K, Haruno M

Abstract
Recent studies have shown that the reactions of bystanders who witness bullying significantly affect whether the bullying persists. However, the underlying behavioral and neural mechanisms that determine a peer-influenced bystander's participation in bullying remain largely unknown. Here, we designed a new "catch-ball" task where four players choose to throw a sequence of normal or strong (aggressive) balls in turn and examined whether the players (n=43) participated in other players' bullying. We analyzed behaviors with a computational model that quantifies the tendencies of a participant's 1) baseline propensity for bullying, 2) reactive revenge, 3) conformity to bullying, and 4) capitulation to threat and estimated these effects on the choice of balls. We found only conformity had a positive effect on the throwing of strong balls. Furthermore, we identified a correlation between a participant's conformity and social anxiety. Our mediation analysis of resting-state fMRI revealed that there were significant relationships of each participant's functional connectivity between the amygdala and right temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and social anxiety to the participant's conformity to bullying. We also found that amygdala-TPJ connectivity partially mediated the relationship between social anxiety and conformity. These results highlighted the anxiety-based conformity and amygdala network on peer-influenced bystander participation in bullying.

PMID: 30481351 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Alterations in the hippocampal-thalamic pathway underlying secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: A diffusion tensor imaging study.

Wed, 11/28/2018 - 13:20
Related Articles

Alterations in the hippocampal-thalamic pathway underlying secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: A diffusion tensor imaging study.

Epilepsia. 2018 Nov 26;:

Authors: Chen C, Li H, Ding F, Yang L, Huang P, Wang S, Jin B, Xu C, Wang Y, Ding M, Chen Z, Wang S

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The epileptogenic network underlying secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures (sGTCS) in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is not well understood. Here, we investigated alterations in the probabilistic hippocampal-thalamic pathway (pHTP) underlying sGTCS using diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in a cohort of TLE patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS).
METHODS: We consecutively recruited 51 unilateral TLE-HS patients (26 with and 25 without sGTCS) and 22 healthy controls. Probabilistic tractography was used to track the pHTP. Raw fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) of the pHTP were corrected by the FA/MD of the hemispheric white matter on the same side. The volume of the thalamic subregion connected to the hippocampus (TSCH) was investigated. Fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations of the hippocampus, the TSCH, and the thalamic subregion unconnected to the hippocampus in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging were also calculated.
RESULTS: After correction, the sGTCS group showed lower FA than the non-sGTCS group (P = 0.03), and lower FA as well as higher MD than controls in the ipsilateral pHTP. The non-sGTCS group only showed higher corrected MD in the ipsilateral pHTP relative to controls. Corrected FA or MD in the contralateral pHTP did not differ among groups. The TSCH was located in the mesial aspect of the thalamus, and it was atrophied in the sGTCS group compared to the non-sGTCS group and controls. The sGTCS group had lower fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations in the ipsilateral hippocampus and TSCH compared to controls.
SIGNIFICANCE: In TLE-HS, sGTCS was associated with impaired integrity of the pHTP as well as structural and functional abnormalities in the medial thalamus. The medial thalamus is important in seizure generalization in mTLE.

PMID: 30478929 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Low-frequency fluctuation characteristics in rhesus macaques with SIV infection: a resting-state fMRI study.

Wed, 11/28/2018 - 13:20
Related Articles

Low-frequency fluctuation characteristics in rhesus macaques with SIV infection: a resting-state fMRI study.

J Neurovirol. 2018 Nov 26;:

Authors: Zhao J, Chen F, Ren M, Li L, Li A, Jing B, Li H

Abstract
Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaque is a widely used model to study human immunodeficiency virus. The purpose of the study is to discover the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and fractional ALFF (fALFF) changes in SIV-infected macaques. Seven rhesus macaques were involved in the longitudinal MRI scans: (1) baseline (healthy state); (2) SIV infection stage (12 weeks after SIV inoculation). ALFF and fALFF were subsequently computed and compared to ascertain the changes caused by SIV infection. Whole-brain correlation analysis was further used to explore the possible associations between ALFF/fALFF values and immune status parameters (CD4+ T cell counts, CD4/CD8 ratio and virus load). Compared with the baseline, macaques in SIV infection stage displayed strengthened ALFF values in left precuneus, postcentral gyrus, and temporal gyrus, and weakened ALFF values in orbital gyrus and inferior temporal gyrus. Meanwhile, increased fALFF values were found in left superior frontal gyrus, right precentral gyrus, and superior temporal gyrus, while decreased fALFF values existed in left hippocampus, left caudate, and right inferior frontal gyrus. Furthermore, ALFF and fALFF values in several brain regions showed significant relationships with CD4+ T cell counts, CD4/CD8 ratio, and plasma virus load. Our findings could promote the understanding of neuroAIDS caused by HIV infection, which may provide supplementary evidences for the future therapy study in SIV model.

PMID: 30478797 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Dissociable Disruptions in Thalamic and Hippocampal Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Youth with 22q11.2 Deletions.

Wed, 11/28/2018 - 13:20
Related Articles

Dissociable Disruptions in Thalamic and Hippocampal Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Youth with 22q11.2 Deletions.

J Neurosci. 2018 Nov 26;:

Authors: Schleifer C, Lin A, Kushan L, Lisa Ji J, Yang G, Bearden CE, Anticevic A

Abstract
22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a recurrent copy number variant (CNV) with high penetrance for developmental neuropsychiatric disorders. Study of individuals with 22q11DS therefore may offer key insights into neural mechanisms underlying such complex illnesses. Resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) studies in idiopathic schizophrenia have consistently revealed disruption of thalamic and hippocampal circuitry. Here, we sought to test whether this circuitry is similarly disrupted in the context of this genetic high-risk condition. To this end, resting-state functional connectivity patterns were assessed in a sample of human youth with 22q11DS (n=42; 59.5% female) and demographically matched healthy controls (n=39; 53.8% female). Neuroimaging data were acquired via single-band protocols, and analyzed in line with methods provided by the Human Connectome Project (HCP). We computed functional relationships between individual-specific anatomically-defined thalamic and hippocampal seeds and all gray matter voxels in the brain. Whole-brain type I error protection was achieved through nonparametric permutation-based methods. 22q11DS patients displayed dissociable disruptions in thalamic and hippocampal functional connectivity relative to control subjects. Thalamo-cortical coupling was increased in somatomotor regions, and reduced across associative networks. The opposite effect was observed for the hippocampus in regards to somatomotor and associative network connectivity. The thalamic and hippocampal dysconnectivity observed in 22q11DS suggest that high genetic risk for psychiatric illness is linked with disruptions in large-scale cortico-subcortical networks underlying higher-order cognitive functions. These effects highlight the translational importance of large-effect CNVs for informing mechanisms underlying neural disruptions observed in idiopathic developmental neuropsychiatric disorders.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTInvestigation of neuroimaging biomarkers in highly penetrant genetic syndromes represents a more biologically tractable approach to identify neural circuit disruptions underlying developmental neuropsychiatric conditions. 22q11.2 deletion syndrome confers particularly high risk for psychotic disorders, and is thus an important translational model in which to investigate systems-level mechanisms implicated in idiopathic illness. Here, we show resting-state fMRI evidence of large-scale sensory and executive network disruptions in youth with 22q11DS. In particular, this study provides the first evidence that these networks are disrupted in a dissociable fashion with regard to the functional connectivity of the thalamus and hippocampus, suggesting circuit-level dysfunction.

PMID: 30478034 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Graph theory analysis reveals how sickle cell disease impacts neural networks of patients with more severe disease.

Wed, 11/28/2018 - 13:20
Related Articles

Graph theory analysis reveals how sickle cell disease impacts neural networks of patients with more severe disease.

Neuroimage Clin. 2018 Nov 14;:

Authors: Case M, Shirinpour S, Vijayakumar V, Zhang H, Datta Y, Nelson S, Pergami P, Darbari DS, Gupta K, He B

Abstract
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a hereditary blood disorder associated with many life-threatening comorbidities including cerebral stroke and chronic pain. The long-term effects of this disease may therefore affect the global brain network which is not clearly understood. We performed graph theory analysis of functional networks using non-invasive fMRI and high resolution EEG on thirty-one SCD patients and sixteen healthy controls. Resting state data were analyzed to determine differences between controls and patients with less severe and more severe sickle cell related pain. fMRI results showed that patients with higher pain severity had lower clustering coefficients and local efficiency. The neural network of the more severe patient group behaved like a random network when performing a targeted attack network analysis. EEG results showed the beta1 band had similar results to fMRI resting state data. Our data show that SCD affects the brain on a global level and that graph theory analysis can differentiate between patients with different levels of pain severity.

PMID: 30477765 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Altered functional connectivity in the fear network of firefighters with repeated traumatic stress.

Wed, 11/28/2018 - 13:20
Related Articles

Altered functional connectivity in the fear network of firefighters with repeated traumatic stress.

Br J Psychiatry. 2018 Nov 27;:1-7

Authors: Jeong H, Park S, Dager SR, Lim SM, Lee SL, Hong H, Ma J, Ha E, Hong YS, Kang I, Lee EH, Yoon S, Kim JE, Kim J, Lyoo IK

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Firefighters are routinely exposed to various traumatic events and often experience a range of trauma-related symptoms. Although these repeated traumatic exposures rarely progress to the development of post-traumatic stress disorder, firefighters are still considered to be a vulnerable population with regard to trauma.AimsTo investigate how the human brain responds to or compensates for the repeated experience of traumatic stress.
METHOD: We included 98 healthy firefighters with repeated traumatic experiences but without any diagnosis of mental illness and 98 non-firefighter healthy individuals without any history of trauma. Functional connectivity within the fear circuitry, which consists of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, insula, amygdala, hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), was examined using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Trauma-related symptoms were evaluated using the Impact of Event Scale - Revised.
RESULTS: The firefighter group had greater functional connectivity between the insula and several regions of the fear circuitry including the bilateral amygdalae, bilateral hippocampi and vmPFC as compared with healthy individuals. In the firefighter group, stronger insula-amygdala connectivity was associated with greater severity of trauma-related symptoms (β = 0.36, P = 0.005), whereas higher insula-vmPFC connectivity was related to milder symptoms in response to repeated trauma (β = -0.28, P = 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: The current findings suggest an active involvement of insular functional connectivity in response to repeated traumatic stress. Functional connectivity of the insula in relation to the amygdala and vmPFC may be potential pathways that underlie the risk for and resilience to repeated traumatic stress, respectively.Declaration of interestNone.

PMID: 30477594 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Abnormal resting state activity of left middle occipital gyrus and its functional connectivity in female patients with major depressive disorder.

Wed, 11/28/2018 - 13:20
Related Articles

Abnormal resting state activity of left middle occipital gyrus and its functional connectivity in female patients with major depressive disorder.

BMC Psychiatry. 2018 Nov 26;18(1):370

Authors: Teng C, Zhou J, Ma H, Tan Y, Wu X, Guan C, Qiao H, Li J, Zhong Y, Wang C, Zhang N

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Women are more susceptible to major depressive disorder (MDD). A possible explanation is that women have a trait tendency to engage in a ruminative response style. Depending on cognitive model of depression, attention bias, memory bias and self-referential bias were closely related among depressed patients. Previous studies have explored the neural mechanism of the cognitive biases by using amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF) or functional connectivity (FC), and few combined these two metrics, especially focusing on female patients.
METHODS: We assessed 25 female patients diagnosed with MDD and 13 well matched healthy controls (HCs) using Rs-fMRI. Two metrics ALFF and FC based on abnormal ALFF were explored and made comparisons.
RESULTS: Compared with HCs, female patients with MDD showed that one cluster with significantly decreased ALFF in the left middle occipital gyrus(L-MOG). Furtherly we founded depressed female subjects showed significantly lower FC between the L-MOG seed and left orbitofrontal cortex, and significantly higher FC between the L-MOG seed and left medial prefrontal gyrus and left hippocampus.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed L-MOG may act as a connection, which involved in the processing of cognitive biases of MDD by connected with limbic-cortical regions in resting state. These findings may enhance the understanding of the neurobiological mechanism in female patients with MDD.

PMID: 30477561 [PubMed - in process]

Training effects of Interactive Metronome® on golf performance and brain activity in professional woman golf players.

Wed, 11/28/2018 - 13:20
Related Articles

Training effects of Interactive Metronome® on golf performance and brain activity in professional woman golf players.

Hum Mov Sci. 2018 Oct;61:63-71

Authors: Kim JH, Han JK, Han DH

Abstract
During putting in golf, the direction and velocity of the club head should be consistent across swings. In order to maintain consistency in swing timing, the cerebellum provides temporal information, motor timing, control of rhythm, and timing of movements. We utilized Interactive Metronome (IM), a brain training software program that combines the concepts of neurotechnology with the abilities of a computer, to improve an individual's rhythm and timing. We propose that IM would activate neural networks involved in decreasing variation in putt swing. Twenty professional female golfers (KLPGA) were randomly assigned to either an IM training group (n = 10, 35-40 min per session, twice a week for 6 weeks) or a control group (n = 10). The golf putting movements and brain activity were analyzed using Kinovea Software and resting state functional MRI, respectively. Consistency was measured as the standard deviation of mean swing speed (SSD) during three sections of the swing: backswing (AD-BS), backswing-impact (BS-IMP), and impact-finish (IMP-FIS). Our results show that the consistency of the IM group improved in the time between the back swing and impact in the 2 m putt and 5 m putt compared to the control group. Using functional MRI, after the training period, the IM group showed increased functional connectivity from the superior cerebellar vermis to the right medial frontal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, right middle occipital gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus, right cingulate gyrus, and right supramarginal gyrus (uncorrected p < 0.001, voxels > 40). These findings suggest that IM training in professional female golf players may improve consistency in putt timing. In addition, IM training may increase brain connectivity from the cerebellum to the frontal cortex, which plays an important role in motor control and timing.

PMID: 30029204 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Sleep quality and adolescent default mode network connectivity.

Wed, 11/28/2018 - 13:20
Related Articles

Sleep quality and adolescent default mode network connectivity.

Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2018 03 01;13(3):290-299

Authors: Tashjian SM, Goldenberg D, Monti MM, Galván A

Abstract
Sleep suffers during adolescence and is related to academic, emotional and social behaviors. How this normative change relates to ongoing brain development remains unresolved. The default mode network (DMN), a large-scale brain network important for complex cognition and socioemotional processing, undergoes intra-network integration and inter-network segregation during adolescence. Using resting state functional connectivity and actigraphy over 14 days, we examined correlates of naturalistic individual differences in sleep duration and quality in the DMN at rest in 45 human adolescents (ages 14-18). Variation in sleep quality, but not duration, was related to weaker intrinsic DMN connectivity, such that those with worse quality sleep evinced weaker intra-network connectivity at rest. These novel findings suggest sleep quality, a relatively unexplored sleep index, is related to adolescent brain function in a network that contributes to behavioral maturation and undergoes development during adolescence.

PMID: 29432569 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Amygdala-orbitofrontal structural and functional connectivity in females with anxiety disorders, with and without a history of conduct disorder.

Wed, 11/28/2018 - 13:20
Related Articles

Amygdala-orbitofrontal structural and functional connectivity in females with anxiety disorders, with and without a history of conduct disorder.

Sci Rep. 2018 01 18;8(1):1101

Authors: Lindner P, Flodin P, Larm P, Budhiraja M, Savic-Berglund I, Jokinen J, Tiihonen J, Hodgins S

Abstract
Conduct disorder (CD) and anxiety disorders (ADs) are often comorbid and both are characterized by hyper-sensitivity to threat, and reduced structural and functional connectivity between the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Previous studies of CD have not taken account of ADs nor directly compared connectivity in the two disorders. We examined three groups of young women: 23 presenting CD and lifetime AD; 30 presenting lifetime AD and not CD; and 17 with neither disorder (ND). Participants completed clinical assessments and diffusion-weighted and resting-state functional MRI scans. The uncinate fasciculus was reconstructed using tractography and manual dissection, and structural measures extracted. Correlations of resting-state activity between amygdala and OFC seeds were computed. The CD + AD and AD groups showed similarly reduced structural integrity of the left uncinate compared to ND, even after adjusting for IQ, psychiatric comorbidity, and childhood maltreatment. Uncinate integrity was associated with harm avoidance traits among AD-only women, and with the interaction of poor anger control and anxiety symptoms among CD + AD women. Groups did not differ in functional connectivity. Reduced uncinate integrity observed in CD + AD and AD-only women may reflect deficient emotion regulation in response to threat, common to both disorders, while other neural mechanisms determine the behavioral response.

PMID: 29348532 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Towards a Complete Taxonomy of Resting State Networks Across Wakefulness and Sleep: An Assessment of Spatially Distinct Resting State Networks Using Independent Component Analysis.

Tue, 11/27/2018 - 12:00

Towards a Complete Taxonomy of Resting State Networks Across Wakefulness and Sleep: An Assessment of Spatially Distinct Resting State Networks Using Independent Component Analysis.

Sleep. 2018 Nov 26;:

Authors: Houldin E, Fang Z, Ray LB, Owen AM, Fogel SM

Abstract
Resting state network (RSN) functional connectivity (FC) has been investigated under a wealth of different healthy and compromised conditions. However such investigations are often dependent on the defined spatial boundaries and nodes of so-called canonical RSNs, themselves the product of extensive deliberations over distinctions between functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) noise and neural signal, specifically in the context of the healthy waking state. However, a similar unbiased cataloguing of noise and networks remains to be done in other states, particularly sleep, a healthy alternate mode of the brain that supports distinct operations from wakefulness, such as dreaming and memory consolidation. The purpose of this study was to explicitly test the hypothesis that there are RSNs unique to sleep. Simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and fMRI was used to record brain activity of non-sleep-deprived subjects. Independent component analysis (ICA) was performed on both rapid eye movement (REM; N = 7) and non-REM sleep stage fMRI data (non-REM2; N = 28, non-REM3; N = 11), with the resulting components spatially correlated with the canonical RSNs, for the purpose of identifying spatially distinct RSNs. Surprisingly, all low-correlation components were positively identified as noise, and all high-correlation components comprised the canonical set of RSNs typically observed in wake, indicating that sleep is supported by much the same RSN architecture as wakefulness, despite the unique operations performed during sleep. This further indicates that the implicit assumptions of prior studies, i.e., that the canonical RSNs apply to sleep FC analysis, are valid and have not overlooked sleep-specific RSNs.

PMID: 30476346 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

MRI-related anxiety in healthy individuals, intrinsic BOLD oscillations at 0.1 Hz in precentral gyrus and insula, and heart rate variability in low frequency bands.

Tue, 11/27/2018 - 12:00

MRI-related anxiety in healthy individuals, intrinsic BOLD oscillations at 0.1 Hz in precentral gyrus and insula, and heart rate variability in low frequency bands.

PLoS One. 2018;13(11):e0206675

Authors: Pfurtscheller G, Schwerdtfeger A, Fink D, Brunner C, Aigner CS, Brito J, Andrade A

Abstract
Participation in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning is associated with increased anxiety, thus possibly impacting baseline recording for functional MRI studies. The goal of the paper is to elucidate the significant hemispheric asymmetry between blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signals from precentral gyrus (PCG) and insula in 23 healthy individuals without any former MRI experience recently published in a PLOSONE paper. In addition to BOLD signals state anxiety and heart rate variability (HRV) were analyzed in two resting state sessions (R1, R2). Phase-locking and time delays from BOLD signals were computed in the frequency band 0.07-0.13 Hz. Positive (pTD) and negative time delays (nTD) were found. The pTD characterize descending neural BOLD oscillations spreading from PCG to insula and nTD characterize ascending vascular BOLD oscillations related to blood flow in the middle cerebral artery. HRV power in two low frequency bands 0.06-0.1 Hz and 0.1-0.14 Hz was computed. Based on the anxiety change from R1 to R2, two groups were separated: one with a strong anxiety decline (large change group) and one with a moderate decline or even anxiety increase (small change group). A significant correlation was found only between the left-hemispheric time delay (pTD, nTD) and anxiety change, with a dominance of nTD in the large change group. The analysis of within-scanner HRV revealed a pronounced increase of low frequency power between both resting states, dominant in the band 0.06-0.1 Hz in the large change group and in the band 0.1-0.14 Hz in the small change group. These results suggest different mechanisms related to anxiety processing in healthy individuals. One mechanism (large anxiety change) could embrace an increase of blood circulation in the territory of the left middle cerebral artery (vascular BOLD) and another (small anxiety change) translates to rhythmic central commands (neural BOLD) in the frequency band 0.1-0.14 Hz.

PMID: 30475859 [PubMed - in process]

Pages