New resting-state fMRI related studies at PubMed

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A multivariate neuroimaging biomarker of individual outcome to transcranial magnetic stimulation in depression.

Thu, 07/25/2019 - 15:37
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A multivariate neuroimaging biomarker of individual outcome to transcranial magnetic stimulation in depression.

Hum Brain Mapp. 2019 Jul 22;:

Authors: Cash RFH, Cocchi L, Anderson R, Rogachov A, Kucyi A, Barnett AJ, Zalesky A, Fitzgerald PB

Abstract
The neurobiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) remains incompletely understood, and many individuals fail to respond to standard treatments. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has emerged as a promising antidepressant therapy. However, the heterogeneity of response underscores a pressing need for biomarkers of treatment outcome. We acquired resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data in 47 MDD individuals prior to 5-8 weeks of rTMS treatment targeted using the F3 beam approach and in 29 healthy comparison subjects. The caudate, prefrontal cortex, and thalamus showed significantly lower blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal power in MDD individuals at baseline. Critically, individuals who responded best to treatment were associated with lower pre-treatment BOLD power in these regions. Additionally, functional connectivity (FC) in the default mode and affective networks was associated with treatment response. We leveraged these findings to train support vector machines (SVMs) to predict individual treatment responses, based on learned patterns of baseline FC, BOLD signal power and clinical features. Treatment response (responder vs. nonresponder) was predicted with 85-95% accuracy. Reduction in symptoms was predicted to within a mean error of ±16% (r = .68, p < .001). These preliminary findings suggest that therapeutic outcome to DLPFC-rTMS could be predicted at a clinically meaningful level using only a small number of core neurobiological features of MDD, warranting prospective testing to ascertain generalizability. This provides a novel, transparent and physiologically plausible multivariate approach for classification of individual response to what has become the most commonly employed rTMS treatment worldwide. This study utilizes data from a larger clinical study (Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: Investigating Predictors of Response to Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for the Treatment of Depression; ACTRN12610001071011; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=336262).

PMID: 31332903 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Resting-state functional connectivity in treatment response and resistance in schizophrenia: A systematic review.

Thu, 07/25/2019 - 15:37
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Resting-state functional connectivity in treatment response and resistance in schizophrenia: A systematic review.

Schizophr Res. 2019 Jul 19;:

Authors: Chan NK, Kim J, Shah P, Brown EE, Plitman E, Carravaggio F, Iwata Y, Gerretsen P, Graff-Guerrero A

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) and treatment-responsive schizophrenia may exhibit distinct pathophysiology. Several functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have used resting-state functional connectivity analyses (rs-FC) in TRS patients to identify markers of treatment resistance. However, to date, existing findings have not been systematically evaluated.
METHODS: A systematic literature search using Embase, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ProQuest, PUBMED, and Scopus was performed. The query sought fMRI articles investigating rs-FC in treatment response or resistance in patients with schizophrenia. Only studies that examined treatment response, operationalized as the explicit categorization of patients by their response to antipsychotic medication, were considered eligible. Pairwise comparisons between patient groups and controls were extracted from each study.
RESULTS: The search query identified 159 records. Ten studies met inclusion criteria. Five studies examined not TRS (NTRS), and 8 studies examined TRS. Differences in rs-FC analysis methodology precluded direct comparisons between studies. However, disruptions in areas involved in visual and auditory information processing were implicated in both patients with TRS and NTRS. Changes in connectivity with sensorimotor network areas tended to appear in the context of TRS but not NTRS. Moreover, there was some indication that this connectivity could be affected by clozapine.
CONCLUSIONS: Functional connectivity may provide clinically meaningful biomarkers of treatment response and resistance in schizophrenia. Studies generally identified similar areas of disruption, though methodological differences largely precluded direct comparison between disruption effects. Implementing data sharing as standard practice will allow future reviews and meta-analyses to identify rs-FC correlates of TRS.

PMID: 31331784 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Altered Functional Connectivity Observed at Rest in Children and Adolescents Prenatally Exposed to Alcohol.

Thu, 07/25/2019 - 15:37
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Altered Functional Connectivity Observed at Rest in Children and Adolescents Prenatally Exposed to Alcohol.

Brain Connect. 2018 10;8(8):503-515

Authors: Little G, Reynolds J, Beaulieu C

Abstract
Studies of brain structure in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) have shown the global and focal effects that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) has on the brain, suggesting but not measuring altered function in FASD. This study aimed to (1) identify resting-state functional networks in children and adolescents with FASD, (2) investigate functional connectivity differences compared with healthy controls, and (3) assess the links to cognitive deficits. Participants included 66 children/adolescents with FASD (aged 5.5-18.9 years) and 67 healthy controls (aged 5.8-18.5 years) scanned across four sites as part of the NeuroDevNet study. Six core functional networks with 27 regions of interest (ROIs) were examined using seed-based and ROI-to-ROI analyses. Average seed-based connectivity maps showed significant spatial overlap of positively correlated regions for all six core networks between FASD and controls, but there was less overlap for negatively correlated regions. ROI-to-ROI matrices demonstrated lower internetwork connectivity between regions primarily associated with the salience network (anterior cingulate cortex and bilateral insula), frontal-parietal network (bilateral posterior parietal cortex), and language network (right posterior superior temporal gyrus). Post hoc correlations of the FASD participants without medication revealed a relationship between functional connectivity and performance on two cognitive tests associated with mathematics ability and attention. Even though participants with PAE exhibit very similar intranetwork functional connectivity patterns as controls, their lower internetwork functional connectivity suggests underlying deficits in the functional network brain architecture that may be related to cognitive impairment.

PMID: 30289280 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Visual brain plasticity induced by central and peripheral visual field loss.

Thu, 07/25/2019 - 15:37
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Visual brain plasticity induced by central and peripheral visual field loss.

Brain Struct Funct. 2018 Sep;223(7):3473-3485

Authors: Sanda N, Cerliani L, Authié CN, Sabbah N, Sahel JA, Habas C, Safran AB, Thiebaut de Schotten M

Abstract
Disorders that specifically affect central and peripheral vision constitute invaluable models to study how the human brain adapts to visual deafferentation. We explored cortical changes after the loss of central or peripheral vision. Cortical thickness (CoTks) and resting-state cortical entropy (rs-CoEn), as a surrogate for neural and synaptic complexity, were extracted in 12 Stargardt macular dystrophy, 12 retinitis pigmentosa (tunnel vision stage), and 14 normally sighted subjects. When compared to controls, both groups with visual loss exhibited decreased CoTks in dorsal area V3d. Peripheral visual field loss also showed a specific CoTks decrease in early visual cortex and ventral area V4, while central visual field loss in dorsal area V3A. Only central visual field loss exhibited increased CoEn in LO-2 area and FG1. Current results revealed biomarkers of brain plasticity within the dorsal and the ventral visual streams following central and peripheral visual field defects.

PMID: 29936553 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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