New resting-state fMRI related studies at PubMed

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Designing weighted correlation kernels in convolutional neural networks for functional connectivity based brain disease diagnosis.

Mon, 05/18/2020 - 16:20
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Designing weighted correlation kernels in convolutional neural networks for functional connectivity based brain disease diagnosis.

Med Image Anal. 2020 Apr 23;63:101709

Authors: Jie B, Liu M, Lian C, Shi F, Shen D

Abstract
Functional connectivity networks (FCNs) based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have been widely applied to analyzing and diagnosing brain diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its prodrome stage, i.e., mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Existing studies usually use Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) method to construct FCNs, and then extract network measures (e.g., clustering coefficients) as features to learn a diagnostic model. However, the valuable observation information in network construction (e.g., specific contributions of different time points), as well as high-level and high-order network features are neglected in these studies. In this paper, we first define a novel weighted correlation kernel (called wc-kernel) to measure the correlation of brain regions, by which weighting factors are learned in a data-driven manner to characterize the contributions of different time points, thus conveying the richer interaction information among brain regions compared with the PCC method. Furthermore, we build a wc-kernel based convolutional neural network (CNN) (called wck-CNN) framework for learning the hierarchical (i.e., from local to global and also from low-level to high-level) features for disease diagnosis, by using fMRI data. Specifically, we first define a layer to build dynamic FCNs using our proposed wc-kernels. Then, we define another three layers to sequentially extract local (brain region specific), global (brain network specific) and temporal features from the constructed dynamic FCNs for classification. Experimental results on 174 subjects (a total of 563 scans) with rest-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) data from ADNI database demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed method.

PMID: 32417715 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Effects of hunger, satiety and oral glucose on effective connectivity between hypothalamus and insular cortex.

Mon, 05/18/2020 - 16:20
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Effects of hunger, satiety and oral glucose on effective connectivity between hypothalamus and insular cortex.

Neuroimage. 2020 May 14;:116931

Authors: Al-Zubaidi A, Iglesias S, Stephan KE, Buades-Rotger M, Heldmann M, Nolde JM, Kirchner H, Mertins A, Jauch-Chara K, Münte TF

Abstract
The hypothalamus and insular cortex play an essential role in the integration of endocrine and homeostatic signals and their impact on food intake. Resting-state functional connectivity alterations of the hypothalamus, posterior insula (PINS) and anterior insula (AINS) are modulated by metabolic states and caloric intake. Nevertheless, a deeper understanding of how these factors affect the strength of connectivity between hypothalamus, PINS and AINS is missing. This study investigated whether effective (directed) connectivity within this network varies as a function of prandial states (hunger vs. satiety) and energy availability (glucose levels and/or hormonal modulation). To address this question, we measured twenty healthy male participants of normal weight twice: once after 36 hours of fasting (except water consumption) and once under satiated conditions. During each session, resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) and hormone concentrations were recorded before and after glucose administration. Spectral dynamic causal modeling (spDCM) was used to assess the effective connectivity between the hypothalamus and anterior and posterior insula. Using Bayesian model selection, we observed that the same model was identified as the most likely model for each rs-fMRI recording. Compared to satiety, the hunger condition enhanced the strength of the forward connections from PINS to AINS and reduced the strength of backward connections from AINS to PINS. Furthermore, the strength of connectivity from PINS to AINS was positively related to plasma cortisol levels in the hunger condition, mainly before glucose administration. However, there was no direct relationship between glucose treatment and effective connectivity. Our findings suggest that prandial states modulate connectivity between PINS and AINS and relate to theories of interoception and homeostatic regulation that invoke hierarchical relations between posterior and anterior insula.

PMID: 32417450 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Grey matter volume and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations predicts consumer ethnocentrism tendency.

Mon, 05/18/2020 - 16:20
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Grey matter volume and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations predicts consumer ethnocentrism tendency.

Neurosci Lett. 2020 May 14;:135053

Authors: Huang J, Wan X, Peng K, Sui J

Abstract
Consumer ethnocentrism tendency (CET) refers to consumers' belief about the appropriateness and morality of buying foreign products, and this concept characterizes consumers' tendency to differentiate in-group and out-group commercial products and to avoid imported products for nationalistic reasons. In order to identify the neural correlates of individual differences in CET, we conducted a combined voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and resting-state fMRI study with 228 healthy adults from mainland China, and examined the associations between self-reported CET scores and gray matter volume (GMV), as well as fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF). The VBM and fALFF results consistently associated consumer ethnocentrism with the middle temporal gyrus, and the fALFF results further revealed the roles of anterior cingulate gyrus and anterior insula in CET. Collectively, these findings provide converging evidence about the neural correlates for dispositional attitudes toward domestic and foreign products.

PMID: 32417388 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Altered intrinsic connectivity distribution in internet gaming disorder and its associations with psychotherapy treatment outcomes.

Mon, 05/18/2020 - 04:00
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Altered intrinsic connectivity distribution in internet gaming disorder and its associations with psychotherapy treatment outcomes.

Addict Biol. 2020 May 16;:e12917

Authors: Liu L, Potenza MN, Lacadie CM, Zhang JT, Yip SW, Xia CC, Lan J, Yao YW, Deng LY, Park SQ, Fang XY

Abstract
Alterations in brain connectivity have been implicated in internet gaming disorder (IGD). However, little is known about alterations in whole-brain connectivity and their associations with long-term treatment outcomes. Here, we used a relatively new analytic approach, intrinsic connectivity distribution (ICD) analysis, to examine brain connectivity in 74 IGD participants and 41 matched healthy controls (HCs) and conducted post hoc seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) analyses based on the ICD findings. We also examined how these findings related to outcomes involving a craving behavioral intervention (CBI) for IGD. IGD participants showed less whole-brain connectivity in the left angular gyrus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) compared with HC participants. Seed-based rsFC analyses revealed that the left angular gyrus in the IGD group showed less connectivity with areas involved in the default-mode network and greater connectivity with areas in the salience and executive control networks. CBI was associated with improved connectivity within regions in the default-mode network and regions across the default-mode and salience networks. ICD-identified connectivity differences in the left angular gyrus and vmPFC were related to changes in craving and severity of addiction 6 months after the intervention. The findings suggest that IGD is associated with alterations in brain connectivity that may be sensitive to interventions. Thus, the findings have implications for understanding mechanisms underlying CBI effects and for further treatment development.

PMID: 32415913 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Adolescent substance use and functional connectivity between the ventral striatum and hippocampus.

Sat, 05/16/2020 - 14:20

Adolescent substance use and functional connectivity between the ventral striatum and hippocampus.

Behav Brain Res. 2020 May 12;:112678

Authors: Huntley ED, Marusak HA, Berman SE, Zundel CG, Hatfield JRB, Keating DP, Rabinak CA

Abstract
Neurodevelopmental explanations for adolescent substance use have focused on heightened sensitivity of mesolimbic circuitry, centered on the ventral striatum (VS). Recent evidence suggests that, relative to adults, adolescents show a stronger link between reinforcement learning and episodic memory for rewarding outcomes and greater functional connectivity between the VS and hippocampus, which may reflect a heightened reward modulation of memory. However, a link between VS-hippocampal circuitry and adolescent substance use has yet to be established. Two separate studies were conducted to evaluate whether variation in VS-hippocampal resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) predicts subsequent adolescent substance use exposure. A pilot study (Study 1) consisted of 19 youth recruited from a high sociodemographic risk population (N = 19; mean age = 13.3 SD = 1.4; 14 females; 47% Black Non-Hispanic, 32% White Non-Hispanic). To replicate results of Study 1, Study 2 utilized data from the National Consortium on Adolescent Neurodevelopment and Alcohol (N = 644; mean age = 16.3 SD = 2.5; 339 females; 11% Black Non-Hispanic, 11% Hispanic/Latino, 66% White Non-Hispanic). Resting-state fMRI data were collected at a baseline time point and lifetime and past year self-reported substance use was collected at a follow up visit. Regression models tested whether baseline VS-hippocampal rs-FC predicted substance use exposure at follow up, as measured by an index score reflecting the number of substance classes (e.g., alcohol, marijuana) tried and overall frequency of use. Across both studies, higher VS-hippocampal rs-FC at baseline predicted greater substance use exposure at follow up (pFWE < .05). These data provide the first evidence linking increased VS-hippocampal connectivity with greater adolescent substance use exposure. Results fit with the emerging idea that variation in adolescent substance use may relate to not only individual differences in mesolimbic sensitivity to reward, but also to an individuals' memory sensitivity to reward as measured by connectivity between canonical memory and reward regions.

PMID: 32413469 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Single-subject, Single-session, Temporal Modes of Brain Activity.

Sat, 05/16/2020 - 14:20

Single-subject, Single-session, Temporal Modes of Brain Activity.

Neuroimage. 2020 May 12;:116783

Authors: Gomez DEP, Llera A, Marques JPRF, Beckmann CF, Norris DG

Abstract
Temporally independent functional modes (TFMs) are functional brain networks identified based on their temporal independence. The rationale behind identifying TFMs is that different functional networks may share a common anatomical infrastructure yet display distinct temporal dynamics. Extracting TFMs usually require a larger number of samples than acquired in standard fMRI experiments, and thus have therefore previously only been performed at the group level. Here, using an ultra-fast fMRI sequence, MESH-EPI, with a volume repetition time of 158ms, we conducted an exploratory study with n=6 subjects and computed TFMs at the single subject level on both task and resting-state datasets. We identified 6 common temporal modes of activity in our participants, including a temporal default mode showing patterns of anti-correlation between the default mode and the task-positive networks, a lateralized motor mode and a visual mode integrating the visual cortex and the visual streams. In alignment with other findings reported recently, we also showed that independent time-series are largely free from confound contamination. In particular for ultra-fast fMRI, TFMs can separate the cardiac signal from other fluctuations. Using a non-linear dimensionality reduction technique, UMAP, we obtained preliminary evidence that combinations of spatial networks as described by the TFM model are highly individual. Our results show that it is feasible to measure reproducible TFMs at the single-subject level, opening new possibilities for investigating functional networks and their integration. Finally, we provide a python toolbox for generating TFMs and comment on possible applications of the technique and avenues for further investigation.

PMID: 32413462 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Altered Resting-State Functional Connectivity of Multiple Networks and Disrupted Correlation With Executive Function in Major Depressive Disorder.

Sat, 05/16/2020 - 14:20

Altered Resting-State Functional Connectivity of Multiple Networks and Disrupted Correlation With Executive Function in Major Depressive Disorder.

Front Neurol. 2020;11:272

Authors: Liu Y, Chen Y, Liang X, Li D, Zheng Y, Zhang H, Cui Y, Chen J, Liu J, Qiu S

Abstract
Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most common and costly psychiatric disorders. In addition to significant changes in mood, MDD patients face an increased risk of developing cognitive dysfunction. It is important to gain an improved understanding of cognitive impairments and find a biomarker for cognitive impairment diagnosis in MDD. Methods: One hundred MDD patients and 100 normal controls (NCs) completed resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) scan, in which 34 MDD patients and 34 NCs had scores in multiple cognitive domains (executive function, verbal fluency, and processing speed). Twenty-seven regions of interest from the default mode network (DMN), central executive network (CEN), salience network (SN), and limbic system (LS) were selected as seeds for functional connectivity (FC) analyses with the voxels in the whole brain. Finally, partial correlations were conducted for cognitive domain scores and FCs with significant differences between the MDD and NC groups. Results: Significant FC differences between groups were identified among the seeds and clusters in the DMN, CEN, LS, visual network, somatomotor network, ventral attention network, and dorsal attention network. In the MDD patients, the magnitude of the Stroop interference effect was positively correlated with the illness duration, and the illness duration was negatively correlated with the FC between the right ventral hippocampal gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus. However, the correlation between the Stroop interference effect and the FC of the right anterior prefrontal cortex with the left cerebellum_4_5 was disrupted in these patients. Conclusions: The MDD patients have altered FCs among multiple brain networks and a disrupted correlation between the FC of prefrontal cortex and executive function. The disrupted correlation could present before the symptoms develop and may be the core process in the development of executive function impairment.

PMID: 32411071 [PubMed]

Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder Using Central-Moment Features From Low- and High-Order Dynamic Resting-State Functional Connectivity Networks.

Sat, 05/16/2020 - 14:20

Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder Using Central-Moment Features From Low- and High-Order Dynamic Resting-State Functional Connectivity Networks.

Front Neurosci. 2020;14:258

Authors: Zhao F, Chen Z, Rekik I, Lee SW, Shen D

Abstract
The sliding-window-based dynamic functional connectivity networks (D-FCNs) derived from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) are effective methods for diagnosing various neurological diseases, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, traditional D-FCNs are low-order networks based on pairwise correlation between brain regions, thus overlooking high-level interactions across multiple regions of interest (ROIs). Moreover, D-FCNs suffer from the temporal mismatching issue, i.e., subnetworks in the same temporal window do not have temporal correspondence across different subjects. To address the above problems, we first construct a novel high-order D-FCNs based on the principle of "correlation's correlation" to further explore the higher level and more complex interaction relationships among multiple ROIs. Furthermore, we propose to use a central-moment method to extract temporal-invariance properties contained in either low- or high-order D-FCNs. Finally, we design and train an ensemble classifier by fusing the features extracted from conventional FCN, low-order D-FCNs, and high-order D-FCNs for the diagnosis of ASD and normal control subjects. Our method achieved the best ASD classification accuracy (83%), and our results revealed the features extracted from different networks fingerprinting the autistic brain at different connectional levels.

PMID: 32410930 [PubMed]

Long-term Ashtanga yoga practice decreases medial temporal and brainstem glucose metabolism in relation to years of experience.

Sat, 05/16/2020 - 14:20

Long-term Ashtanga yoga practice decreases medial temporal and brainstem glucose metabolism in relation to years of experience.

EJNMMI Res. 2020 May 14;10(1):50

Authors: van Aalst J, Ceccarini J, Schramm G, Van Weehaeghe D, Rezaei A, Demyttenaere K, Sunaert S, Van Laere K

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Yoga is increasingly popular worldwide with several physical and mental benefits, but the underlying neurobiology remains unclear. Whereas many studies have focused on pure meditational aspects, the triad of yoga includes meditation, postures, and breathing. We conducted a cross-sectional study comparing experienced yoga practitioners to yoga-naive healthy subjects using a multiparametric 2 × 2 design with simultaneous positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) imaging.
METHODS: 18F-FDG PET, morphometric and diffusion tensor imaging, resting state fMRI, and MR spectroscopy were acquired in 10 experienced (4.8 ± 2.3 years of regular yoga experience) yoga practitioners and 15 matched controls in rest and after a single practice (yoga practice and physical exercise, respectively).
RESULTS: In rest, decreased regional glucose metabolism in the medial temporal cortex, striatum, and brainstem was observed in yoga practitioners compared to controls (p < 0.0001), with a significant inverse correlation of resting parahippocampal and brainstem metabolism with years of regular yoga practice (ρ < - 0.63, p < 0.05). A single yoga practice resulted in significant hypermetabolism in the cerebellum (p < 0.0001). None of the MR measures differed, both at rest and after intervention.
CONCLUSIONS: Experienced yoga practitioners show regional long-term decreases in glucose metabolism related to years of practice. To elucidate a potential causality, a prospective longitudinal study in yoga-naive individuals is warranted.

PMID: 32410000 [PubMed]

Longitudinal brain connectivity changes and clinical evolution in Parkinson's disease.

Sat, 05/16/2020 - 14:20

Longitudinal brain connectivity changes and clinical evolution in Parkinson's disease.

Mol Psychiatry. 2020 May 14;:

Authors: Filippi M, Basaia S, Sarasso E, Stojkovic T, Stankovic I, Fontana A, Tomic A, Piramide N, Stefanova E, Markovic V, Kostic VS, Agosta F

Abstract
Longitudinal connectivity studies might guide our understanding of the underlying neurodegenerative processes. We report the results of a longitudinal study in patients at different stages of Parkinson's disease (PD), who performed motor and non-motor evaluations and serial resting state (RS) functional MRI (fMRI). Cluster analysis was applied to demographic and clinical data of 146 PD patients to define disease subtypes. Brain network functional alterations were assessed at baseline in PD relative to 60 healthy controls and every year for a maximum of 4 years in PD groups. Progression of brain network changes were compared between patient clusters using RS fMRI. The contribution of network changes in predicting clinical deterioration was explored. Two main PD clusters were identified: mild PD (86 patients) and moderate-to-severe PD (60 patients), with the latter group being older and having earlier onset, longer PD duration, more severe motor, non-motor and cognitive deficits. Within the mild patient cluster, two clinical subtypes were further identified: mild motor-predominant (43) and mild-diffuse (43), with the latter being older and having more frequent non-motor symptoms. Longitudinal functional connectivity changes vary across patients in different disease stages with the coexistence of hypo- and hyper-connectivity in all subtypes. RS fMRI changes were associated with motor, cognitive and non-motor evolution in PD patients. Baseline RS fMRI presaged clinical and cognitive evolution. Our network perspective was able to define trajectories of functional architecture changes according to PD stages and prognosis. RS fMRI may be an early biomarker of PD motor and non-motor progression.

PMID: 32409731 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Effect of green tea consumption on human brain function in resting-state functional MRI.

Sat, 05/16/2020 - 14:20
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Effect of green tea consumption on human brain function in resting-state functional MRI.

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2019;28(4):740-746

Authors: Wang H, Sun W, Chang Y, Wu Z, Xu Y, Wang E, Wang L, Yi P

Abstract
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Green tea is reported to have wide benefits on psychological states and cognitive functions. Studies that focus on the underlying neural mechanisms of green tea are limited to its single composition while people usually benefit from green tea water that contains various composition. In this study, we examined the human brain activity changes after drinking natural green tea by using regional homogeneity and functional connectivity based on the resting-state functional MRI technique.
METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Fifteen healthy volunteers participated in two imaging sessions: a control (water) session and a green tea session, each session comprised a predrinking, drinking, and postdrinking section, during the drinking section, the subject consumed 200 mL of green tea infusion or water in 3 to 5 minutes. Then the post-tea and post-water imaging data were selected for regional homogeneity and functional connectivity analysis.
RESULTS: Our results revealed that, compared with the control group, the green tea group exhibited an increased regional homogeneity in the frontal, parietal, and occipital areas of the brain, decreased regional homogeneity values in the left cuneus and left lingual gyrus, mainly a decreased functional connectivity in the default mode network, somatosensory, visual cortex, and parieto-frontal areas and enhanced functional connectivity in brain regions associated with memory.
CONCLUSIONS: This result indicates that green tea consumption impacts the brain activity during resting state.

PMID: 31826371 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Dynamic functional connectivity changes associated with dementia in Parkinson's disease.

Sat, 05/16/2020 - 14:20
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Dynamic functional connectivity changes associated with dementia in Parkinson's disease.

Brain. 2019 09 01;142(9):2860-2872

Authors: Fiorenzato E, Strafella AP, Kim J, Schifano R, Weis L, Antonini A, Biundo R

Abstract
Dynamic functional connectivity captures temporal variations of functional connectivity during MRI acquisition and it may be a suitable method to detect cognitive changes in Parkinson's disease. In this study, we evaluated 118 patients with Parkinson's disease matched for age, sex and education with 35 healthy control subjects. Patients with Parkinson's disease were classified with normal cognition (n = 52), mild cognitive impairment (n = 46), and dementia (n = 20) based on an extensive neuropsychological evaluation. Resting state functional MRI and a sliding-window approach were used to study the dynamic functional connectivity. Dynamic analysis suggested two distinct connectivity 'States' across the entire group: a more frequent, segregated brain state characterized by the predominance of within-network connections, State I, and a less frequent, integrated state with strongly connected functional internetwork components, State II. In Parkinson's disease, State I occurred 13.89% more often than in healthy control subjects, paralleled by a proportional reduction of State II. Parkinson's disease subgroups analyses showed the segregated state occurred more frequently in Parkinson's disease dementia than in mild cognitive impairment and normal cognition groups. Further, patients with Parkinson's disease dementia dwelled significantly longer in the segregated State I, and showed a significant lower number of transitions to the strongly interconnected State II compared to the other subgroups. Our study indicates that dementia in Parkinson's disease is characterized by altered temporal properties in dynamic connectivity. In addition, our results show that increased dwell time in the segregated state and reduced number of transitions between states are associated with presence of dementia in Parkinson's disease. Further studies on dynamic functional connectivity changes could help to better understand the progressive dysfunction of networks between Parkinson's disease cognitive states.

PMID: 31280293 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Effects of agomelatine and mirtazapine on sleep disturbances in major depressive disorder: evidence from polysomnographic and resting-state functional connectivity analyses.

Fri, 05/15/2020 - 13:20

Effects of agomelatine and mirtazapine on sleep disturbances in major depressive disorder: evidence from polysomnographic and resting-state functional connectivity analyses.

Sleep. 2020 May 14;:

Authors: Mi WF, Tabarak S, Wang L, Zhang SZ, Lin X, Du LT, Liu Z, Bao YP, Gao XJ, Zhang WH, Wang XQ, Fan TT, Li LZ, Hao XN, Fu Y, Shi Y, Guo LH, Sun HQ, Liu L, Si TM, Zhang HY, Lu L, Li SX

Abstract
To investigate effects of agomelatine and mirtazapine on sleep disturbances in patients with major depressive disorder. Thirty depressed patients with sleep disturbances, 27 of which completed the study, took agomelatine or mirtazapine for 8 weeks. Subjective scales were administered, and polysomnography was performed at baseline and at the end of week 1 and 8. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed at baseline and at the end of week 8. Compared with baseline, scores on the Hamilton Depression Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Sleep Dysfunction Rating Scale, and Insomnia Severity Index after 8 weeks of treatment significantly decreased in both groups, with no significant differences between groups, accompanied by significant increases in total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and rapid eye movement sleep and significant decrease in wake after sleep onset. Mirtazapine treatment increased N3 sleep at week 1 compared with agomelatine treatment, but this difference disappeared at week 8. The increases in the percentage and duration of N3 sleep were positively correlated with increases in connectivity between right dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and right precuneus and between left posterior cingulate cortex and right precuneus in both groups, respectively. Functional connectivity between right dlPFC and left precuneus in mirtazapine group was higher compared with agomelatine group after 8 weeks of treatment. These findings indicated that both agomelatine and mirtazapine improved sleep in depressed patients, and the effect of mirtazapine was greater than agomelatine with regard to rapidly increasing N3 sleep and gradually improving functional connectivity in the brain.

PMID: 32406918 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Transient Arousal Modulations Contribute to Resting-State Functional Connectivity Changes Associated with Head Motion Parameters.

Fri, 05/15/2020 - 13:20

Transient Arousal Modulations Contribute to Resting-State Functional Connectivity Changes Associated with Head Motion Parameters.

Cereb Cortex. 2020 May 14;:

Authors: Gu Y, Han F, Sainburg LE, Liu X

Abstract
Correlations of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) signals are being widely used for assessing the functional brain connectivity in health and disease. However, an association was recently observed between rsfMRI connectivity modulations and the head motion parameters and regarded as a causal relationship, which has raised serious concerns about the validity of many rsfMRI findings. Here, we studied the origin of this rsfMRI-motion association and its relationship to arousal modulations. By using a template-matching method to locate arousal-related fMRI changes, we showed that the effects of high motion time points on rsfMRI connectivity are largely due to their significant overlap with arousal-affected time points. The finding suggests that the association between rsfMRI connectivity and the head motion parameters arises from their comodulations at transient arousal modulations, and this information is critical not only for proper interpretation of motion-associated rsfMRI connectivity changes, but also for controlling the potential confounding effects of arousal modulation on rsfMRI metrics.

PMID: 32406488 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

"I do not feel my hand where I see it": causal mapping of visuo-proprioceptive integration network in a surgical glioma patient.

Fri, 05/15/2020 - 13:20

"I do not feel my hand where I see it": causal mapping of visuo-proprioceptive integration network in a surgical glioma patient.

Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2020 May 13;:

Authors: Mandonnet E, Margulies D, Stengel C, Dali M, Rheault F, Toba MN, Bonnetblanc F, Valero-Cabre A

Abstract
A recent tasked-based fMRI study unveiled a network of areas implicated in the process of visuo-proprioceptive integration of the right hand. In this study, we report a case of a patient operated on in awake conditions for a glioblastoma of the left superior parietal lobule. When stimulating a white matter site in the anterior wall of the cavity, the patient spontaneously reported a discrepancy between the visual and proprioceptive perceptions of her right hand. Using several multimodal approaches (axono-cortical evoked potentials, tractography, resting-state functional connectivity), we demonstrated converging support for the hypothesis that tumor-induced plasticity redistributed the left-lateralized network of right-hand visuo-proprioceptive integration towards its right-lateralized homolog.

PMID: 32405668 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Age Group Differences in Executive Network Functional Connectivity and Relationships with Social Behavior in Men with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Fri, 05/15/2020 - 13:20

Age Group Differences in Executive Network Functional Connectivity and Relationships with Social Behavior in Men with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Res Autism Spectr Disord. 2019 Jul;63:63-77

Authors: Walsh MJM, Baxter LC, Smith CJ, Braden BB

Abstract
Background: Research suggests adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may use executive functions to compensate for social difficulties. Given hallmark age-related declines in executive functioning and the executive brain network in normal aging, there is concern that older adults with ASD may experience further declines in social functioning as they age. In a male-only sample, we hypothesized: 1) older adults with ASD would demonstrate greater ASD-related social behavior than young adults with ASD, 2) adults with ASD would demonstrate a greater age group reduction in connectivity of the executive brain network than neurotypical (NT) adults, and 3) that behavioral and neural mechanisms of executive functioning would predict ASD-related social difficulties in adults with ASD.
Methods: Participants were a cross-sectional sample of non-intellectually disabled young (ages 18-25) and middle-aged (ages 40-70) adult men with ASD and NT development (young adult ASD: n=24; middle-age ASD: n=25; young adult NT: n=15; middle-age NT: n=21). We assessed ASD-related social behavior via the self-report Social Responsiveness Scale-2 (SRS-2) Total Score, with exploratory analyses of the Social Cognition Subscale. We assessed neural executive function via connectivity of the resting-state executive network (EN) as measured by independent component analysis. Correlations were investigated between SRS-2 Total Scores (with exploratory analyses of the Social Cognition Subscale), EN functional connectivity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), and a behavioral measure of executive function, Tower of London (ToL) Total Moves.
Results: We did not confirm a significant age group difference for adults with ASD on the SRS-2 Total Score; however, exploratory analysis revealed middle-age men with ASD had higher scores on the SRS-2 Social Cognition Subscale than young adult men with ASD. Exacerbated age group reductions in EN functional connectivity were confirmed (left dlPFC) in men with ASD compared to NT, such that older adults with ASD demonstrated the greatest levels of hypoconnectivity. A significant correlation was confirmed between dlPFC connectivity and the SRS-2 Total Score in middle-age men with ASD, but not young adult men with ASD. Furthermore, exploratory analysis revealed a significant correlation with the SRS-2 Social Cognition Subscale for young and middle-aged ASD groups and ToL Total Moves.
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that ASD-related difficulties in social cognition and EN hypoconnectivity may get worse with age in men with ASD and is related to executive functioning. Further, exacerbated EN hypoconnectivity associated with older age in ASD may be a mechanism of increased ASD-related social cognition difficulties in older adults with ASD. Given the cross-sectional nature of this sample, longitudinal replication is needed.

PMID: 32405319 [PubMed]

Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound capsulotomy for refractory obsessive compulsive disorder and major depressive disorder: clinical and imaging results from two phase I trials.

Fri, 05/15/2020 - 13:20

Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound capsulotomy for refractory obsessive compulsive disorder and major depressive disorder: clinical and imaging results from two phase I trials.

Mol Psychiatry. 2020 May 14;:

Authors: Davidson B, Hamani C, Rabin JS, Goubran M, Meng Y, Huang Y, Baskaran A, Sharma S, Ozzoude M, Richter MA, Levitt A, Giacobbe P, Hynynen K, Lipsman N

Abstract
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are common, often refractory, neuropsychiatric conditions for which new treatment approaches are urgently needed. Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) is a novel surgical technique permitting incisionless ablative neurosurgery. We examined the safety profile, clinical response, and imaging correlates of MRgFUS bilateral anterior capsulotomy in patients with refractory obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD, N = 6) and major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 6). There were no serious adverse events. Nonserious adverse events included headaches and pin-site swelling in 7/12 patients. The response rate was 4/6 and 2/6 in the OCD and MDD cohorts respectively. To delineate the white-matter tracts impacted by capsulotomy, a normative diffusion MRI-based structural connectome was used, revealing tracts terminating primarily in the frontal pole, medial thalamus, striatum, and medial-temporal lobe. Positron emission tomography (PET) analysis (nine subjects) revealed widespread decreases in metabolism bilaterally in the cerebral hemispheres at 6 months post treatment, as well as in the right hippocampus, amygdala, and putamen. A pretreatment seed-to-voxel resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) analysis (12 subjects) revealed three voxel clusters significantly associated with eventual clinical response. MRgFUS capsulotomy appears to be safe, well tolerated, and according to these initial results, may be an important treatment option for patients with refractory OCD and MDD. MRgFUS capsulotomy results in both targeted and widespread changes in neural activity, and neuroimaging may hold potential for the prediction of outcome.

PMID: 32404942 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Preliminary fusion of EEG and MRI with phenotypic scores in children with epilepsy based on the Canonical Polyadic Decomposition.

Fri, 05/15/2020 - 13:20
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Preliminary fusion of EEG and MRI with phenotypic scores in children with epilepsy based on the Canonical Polyadic Decomposition.

Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2019 07;2019:3884-3887

Authors: Dron N, Kninney-Lang E, Chin R, Escudero J

Abstract
Cognitive and behavioural impairments in early-onset epilepsy affect the children and families' quality of life. Our ability to detect these impairments is limited, and it requires laborious questionnaires. Here, we describe a pilot study exploring the fusion of resting-state EEG, volumetric MRI, and phenotypic scores of child development based on the Canonical Polyadic Decomposition, expanding the recently presented Joint EEG-Development Inference (JEDI) model. Pilot data fusion was performed on functional, structural and developmental brain features of 29 preschool children diagnosed with epilepsy. The results suggest that combining multimodal brain data towards a comprehensive analysis of brain development in young children is plausible.

PMID: 31946721 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Proteinopathy and longitudinal changes in functional connectivity networks in Parkinson disease.

Fri, 05/15/2020 - 13:20
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Proteinopathy and longitudinal changes in functional connectivity networks in Parkinson disease.

Neurology. 2020 02 18;94(7):e718-e728

Authors: Campbell MC, Jackson JJ, Koller JM, Snyder AZ, Kotzbauer PT, Perlmutter JS

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate resting-state functional connectivity as a potential prognostic biomarker of Parkinson disease (PD) progression. The study examined longitudinal changes in cortical resting-state functional connectivity networks in participants with PD compared to controls as well as in relation to baseline protein measures and longitudinal clinical progression.
METHODS: Individuals with PD without dementia (n = 64) and control participants (n = 27) completed longitudinal resting-state MRI scans and clinical assessments including full neuropsychological testing after overnight withdrawal of PD medications ("off"). A total of 55 participants with PD and 20 control participants also completed baseline β-amyloid PET scans and lumbar punctures for CSF protein levels of α-synuclein, β-amyloid, and tau. Longitudinal analyses were conducted with multilevel growth curve modeling, a type of mixed-effects model.
RESULTS: Functional connectivity within the sensorimotor network and the interaction between the dorsal attention network with the frontoparietal control network decreased significantly over time in participants with PD compared to controls. Baseline CSF α-synuclein protein levels predicted decline in the sensorimotor network. The longitudinal decline in the dorsal attention-frontoparietal internetwork strength correlated with the decline in cognitive function.
CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that α-synuclein levels may influence longitudinal declines in motor-related functional connectivity networks. Further, the interaction between cortical association networks declines over time in PD prior to dementia onset and may serve as a prognostic marker for the development of dementia.

PMID: 31852813 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Structural and functional reorganization following unilateral internal capsule infarction contribute to neurological function recovery.

Fri, 05/15/2020 - 13:20
Related Articles

Structural and functional reorganization following unilateral internal capsule infarction contribute to neurological function recovery.

Neuroradiology. 2019 Oct;61(10):1181-1190

Authors: Lu Q, Huang G, Chen L, Li W, Liang Z

Abstract
PURPOSE: To investigate proliferative reorganization in the bilateral corticospinal tract (CST) and functional reorganization in the sensorimotor network (SMN) after internal capsule stroke, and to examine the significance of this reorganization.
METHODS: We recruited 17 patients with first-onset acute stroke (16 male, 1 female, mean age 52 ± 10 years) and 17 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. We excluded patients aged < 18 or > 65 years and those with lesions outside the unilateral internal capsule. All subjects underwent diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state functional MRI on days 7, 30, and 90 from symptom onset. We measured fractional anisotropy (FA) in the CST, interhemispheric functional connectivity (FC) within the SMN, and pre-MRI clinical scores, including the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), Barthel Index (BI), and Fugl-Meyer (FM). Correlations among the changes in FA, FC, and clinical scores were analyzed.
RESULTS: From day 7 to 90 after stroke, FA in the bilateral CST increased (ipsilesional side, Pinternal capsule = 0.009, Pcentrum semiovale = 0.001; contralesional side, Pinternal capsule = 0.006, Pcentrum semiovale = 0.017), as did FC (P < 0.05); NIHSS scores decreased (P < 0.05), while FM and BI progressively increased (P < 0.05). Increased FA in bilateral CST was negatively correlated with decreased NIHSS scores. Increased FA in only the ipsilesional side was positively correlated with increased FM. Increased FC was positively correlated only with increased BI.
CONCLUSION: Proliferative reorganization in the CST and functional reorganization in the SMN support and promote neurological functional recovery after internal capsule infarction.

PMID: 31399852 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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