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Investigation of an emotion perception test using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Sun, 08/25/2019 - 13:00
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Investigation of an emotion perception test using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed. 2019 Oct;179:104994

Authors: Bae S, Kang KD, Kim SW, Shin YJ, Nam JJ, Han DH

Abstract
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Patients with mood disorders are known to have an emotion recognition deficit in facial emotion processing. Emotion perception involves two systems of cognitive and affective processes associated with brain activation in the fusiform gyrus and prefrontal cortices. To overcome the limitations of existing emotion perception tests, we designed an emotion perception index to assess the individuals' mood status.
METHODS: We selected 66 emotional faces (22 pleasant, 22 unpleasant, and 22 neutral) for the emotion perception test and recruited 40 healthy participants to verify the test. The participants completed a demographic data questionnaire and were administered the Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI). They were also scanned to assess the brain functional connectivity (FC) between seeds of the fusiform gyrus and other brain regions using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). After rs-fMRI scanning, the participants were administered the emotion perception test on a computer.
RESULTS: In response to 108 questions regarding emotional face differentiation, the study group showed an average correct-answer rate of 90.7 ± 6.4% and a mean reaction time of 1.4 ± 0.4 s. We created an emotion perception index from the calculation of correct rate, number of correct responses, and reaction time in response to 108 questions; the mean of the emotion perception index in the study group was 3.8 ± 0.2. The emotion perception index was positively correlated with the BDI scores (r = 0.4, p = 0.01); further, it was positively correlated with the FC from the fusiform gyrus to the left superior frontal gyrus (FDRq < 0.01), left medial frontal gyrus (FDRq < 0.01), left frontal precentral gyrus (FDRq = 0.02), left insula (FDRq < 0.01), and left occipital cuneus (FDRq = 0.01). The FC from the fusiform gyrus to the left insula was positively correlated with the BDI scores (r = 0.59, p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: The emotion perception index designed in this study may correctly indicate the mood status of individuals. In addition, the emotion perception test was associated with brain FC from the fusiform gyrus to the frontal and insular cortices.

PMID: 31443867 [PubMed - in process]

Common and distinct global functional connectivity density alterations in drug-naïve patients with first-episode major depressive disorder with and without auditory verbal hallucination.

Sat, 08/24/2019 - 12:20
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Common and distinct global functional connectivity density alterations in drug-naïve patients with first-episode major depressive disorder with and without auditory verbal hallucination.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2019 Aug 20;:109738

Authors: Zhuo C, Zhou C, Lin X, Tian H, Wang L, Chen C, Ji F, Xu Y, Jian D

Abstract
Auditory verbal hallucination (AVH), defined as the auditory perception of speech in the absence of a real external stimulus, occurs in individuals with and without mental illness. The distribution of functional abnormalities in patients with AVH suggests aberrant brain network connectivity. However, no study has measured the global functional connectivity density (gFCD) associated with AVH in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD); gFCD is used widely to examine the density distribution of whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity and can serve as an index reflecting brain metabolism disturbance. In this study, we involved drug-naïve patients with first-episode MDD with (n = 35) and without (n = 40) AVH and healthy controls (n = 50).Whole-brain resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired and gFCD was calculated and compared among groups. We found the following gFCD alterations that were shared by both MDD groups: (1) decreased gFCD in the bilateral postcentral gyrus, precentral gyrus, insular cortices and occipital lobe; and (2) increased gFCD in the left middle cingulate cortex. More importantly, we found AVH-specific gFCD changes in patients with MDD: increased gFCD in the left Wernicke's brain regions and bilateral hippocampus and thalamus, and decreased gFCD in the bilateral lateral prefrontal lobule. These findings reflect the disturbance of brain information communication and metabolism in patients with MDD and AVH, related mainly to the language and memory processing circuits, and to some extent provide further support for the "VOICE" model of AVH.

PMID: 31442554 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Functional connectivity mediates the relationship between self-efficacy and curiosity.

Sat, 08/24/2019 - 12:20
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Functional connectivity mediates the relationship between self-efficacy and curiosity.

Neurosci Lett. 2019 Aug 20;:134442

Authors: Li Y, Huo T, Zhuang K, Song L, Wang X, Ren Z, Liu Q, Qiu J

Abstract
Curiosity is an important driving force for human development. This study employed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data (n = 400) and a cross-validation-based predictive framework based on the functional connectivity between and within the default mode network (DMN), fronto-parietal task control network (FPN), and salience network (SN) to explore the relationship between these and curiosity. We found that the curiosity network consisting of functional connections in DMN, FPN, and SN can successfully predict curiosity, and the functional connections within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and between its nodes and the angular gyrus (AG) made a greater contribution to prediction power. More important, although curiosity has long been considered the main intrinsic motivation of learning and self-efficacy (individual's confidence in his or her own ability) is the primary factor affecting learning motivation, few studies have explored the relationship between the two. Therefore, we speculated that the relationship between the curiosity brain network and curiosity might also be related to self-efficacy. In this study, the strength of the curiosity network was calculated as a mediation variable to explore the relationship between self-efficacy and curiosity. The results revealed that the strength of the curiosity brain network mediates the association between self-efficacy and curiosity score. Our findings suggest that self-efficacy plays an important role in shaping individuals' trait curiosity and extends understanding of the neural mechanism of curiosity.

PMID: 31442514 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

MAOA-VNTR genotype affects structural and functional connectivity in distributed brain networks.

Sat, 08/24/2019 - 12:20
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MAOA-VNTR genotype affects structural and functional connectivity in distributed brain networks.

Hum Brain Mapp. 2019 Aug 23;:

Authors: Harneit A, Braun U, Geiger LS, Zang Z, Hakobjan M, van Donkelaar MMJ, Schweiger JI, Schwarz K, Gan G, Erk S, Heinz A, Romanczuk-Seiferth N, Witt S, Rietschel M, Walter H, Franke B, Meyer-Lindenberg A, Tost H

Abstract
Previous studies have linked the low expression variant of a variable number of tandem repeat polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA-L) to the risk for impulsivity and aggression, brain developmental abnormalities, altered cortico-limbic circuit function, and an exaggerated neural serotonergic tone. However, the neurobiological effects of this variant on human brain network architecture are incompletely understood. We studied healthy individuals and used multimodal neuroimaging (sample size range: 219-284 across modalities) and network-based statistics (NBS) to probe the specificity of MAOA-L-related connectomic alterations to cortical-limbic circuits and the emotion processing domain. We assessed the spatial distribution of affected links across several neuroimaging tasks and data modalities to identify potential alterations in network architecture. Our results revealed a distributed network of node links with a significantly increased connectivity in MAOA-L carriers compared to the carriers of the high expression (H) variant. The hyperconnectivity phenotype primarily consisted of between-lobe ("anisocoupled") network links and showed a pronounced involvement of frontal-temporal connections. Hyperconnectivity was observed across functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of implicit emotion processing (pFWE = .037), resting-state fMRI (pFWE = .022), and diffusion tensor imaging (pFWE = .044) data, while no effects were seen in fMRI data of another cognitive domain, that is, spatial working memory (pFWE = .540). These observations are in line with prior research on the MAOA-L variant and complement these existing data by novel insights into the specificity and spatial distribution of the neurogenetic effects. Our work highlights the value of multimodal network connectomic approaches for imaging genetics.

PMID: 31441562 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The Metabolic Activity of Caudate and Prefrontal Cortex Negatively Correlates with the Severity of Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease.

Sat, 08/24/2019 - 12:20
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The Metabolic Activity of Caudate and Prefrontal Cortex Negatively Correlates with the Severity of Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease.

Aging Dis. 2019 Aug;10(4):847-853

Authors: Chu JS, Liu TH, Wang KL, Han CL, Liu YP, Michitomo S, Zhang JG, Fang T, Meng FG

Abstract
Positron emission tomography (PET) scan with tracer [18F]-fluorodeoxy-glucose (18F-FDG) is widely used to measure the glucose metabolism in neurodegenerative disease such as Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). Previous studies using 18F-FDG PET mainly focused on the motor or non-motor symptoms but not the severity of IPD. In this study, we aimed to determine the metabolic patterns of 18F-FDG in different stages of IPD defined by Hoehn and Yahr rating scale (H-Y rating scale) and to identify regions in the brain that play critical roles in disease progression. Fifty IPD patients were included in this study. They were 29 men and 21 women (mean±SD, age 57.7±11.1 years, disease duration 4.0±3.8 years, H-Y 2.2±1.1). Twenty healthy individuals were included as normal controls. Following 18F-FDG PET scan, image analysis was performed using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) and Resting-State fMRI Data Analysis Toolkit (REST). The metabolic feature of IPD and regions-of-interests (ROIs) were determined. Correlation analysis between ROIs and H-Y stage was performed. SPM analysis demonstrated a significant hypometabolic activity in bilateral putamen, caudate and anterior cingulate as well as left parietal lobe, prefrontal cortex in IPD patients. In contrast, hypermetabolism was observed in the cerebellum and vermis. There was a negative correlation (p=0.007, r=-0.412) between H-Y stage and caudate metabolic activity. Moreover, the prefrontal area also showed a negative correlation with H-Y (P=0.033, r=-0.334). Thus, the uptake of FDG in caudate and prefrontal cortex can potentially be used as a surrogate marker to evaluate the severity of IPD.

PMID: 31440389 [PubMed]

Resting State Networks in the TgF344-AD Rat Model of Alzheimer's Disease Are Altered From Early Stages.

Sat, 08/24/2019 - 12:20
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Resting State Networks in the TgF344-AD Rat Model of Alzheimer's Disease Are Altered From Early Stages.

Front Aging Neurosci. 2019;11:213

Authors: Tudela R, Muñoz-Moreno E, Sala-Llonch R, López-Gil X, Soria G

Abstract
A better and non-invasive characterization of the preclinical phases of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is important to advance its diagnosis and obtain more effective benefits from potential treatments. The TgF344-AD rat model has been well characterized and shows molecular, behavioral and brain connectivity alterations that resemble the silent period of the pathology. Our aim was to longitudinally investigate functional brain connectivity in established resting-state networks (RSNs) obtained by independent component analysis (ICA) in a cohort of TgF344-AD and control rats every 3 months, from 5 to 18 months of age, to cover different stages of the disease. Before each acquisition, working memory performance was evaluated by the delayed non match-to-sample (DNMS) task. Differences in the temporal evolution were observed between groups in the amplitude and shape of the somatosensorial and sensorimotor networks but not in the whole default mode network (DMN). Subsequent high dimensional ICA analysis showed early alterations in the anterior DMN subnetwork activity of TgF344-AD rats compared to controls. Performance of DNMS task was positively correlated with somatosensorial network at 5 months of age in the wild-type (WT) animals but not in the Tg-F344 rats. At different time points, DMN showed negative correlation with cognitive performance in the control group while in the transgenic group the correlation was positive. In addition, behavioral differences observed at 5 months of age correlated with alterations in the posterior DMN subnetwork. We have demonstrated that functional connectivity using ICA represents a useful biomarker also in animal models of AD such as the TgF344AD rats, as it allows the identification of alterations associated with the progression of the disease, detecting differences in specific networks even at very early stages.

PMID: 31440158 [PubMed]

Effects of Estradiol Therapy on Resting-State Functional Connectivity of Transgender Women After Gender-Affirming Related Gonadectomy.

Sat, 08/24/2019 - 12:20
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Effects of Estradiol Therapy on Resting-State Functional Connectivity of Transgender Women After Gender-Affirming Related Gonadectomy.

Front Neurosci. 2019;13:817

Authors: Schneider MA, Spritzer PM, Minuzzi L, Frey BN, Syan SK, Fighera TM, Schwarz K, Costa ÂB, da Silva DC, Garcia CCG, Fontanari AMV, Real AG, Anes M, Castan JU, Cunegatto FR, Lobato MIR

Abstract
An extreme incongruence between sex and gender identity leads individuals with gender dysphoria (GD) to seek cross-sex hormone therapy (CSHT), and gender-affirming surgery (GAS). Although few studies have investigated the effects of CSHT on the brain prior to GAS, no studies in the extant literature have evaluated its impact during hypogonadism in post-GAS individuals. Here, we aimed to evaluate the effects of estradiol on resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) of the sensorimotor cortex (SMC) and basal ganglia following surgical hypogonadism. Eighteen post-GAS (male-to-female) participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and neuropsychiatric and hormonal assessment at two time points (t1, hormonal washout; t2, CSHT reintroduction). Based on the literature, the thalamus was selected as a seed, while the SMC and the dorsolateral striatum were targets for seed-based functional connectivity (sbFC). A second sbFC investigation consisted of a whole-brain voxel exploratory analysis again using the thalamus as a seed. A final complementary data-driven approach using multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) was conducted to identify a potential seed for further sbFC analyses. An increase in the rs-FC between the left thalamus and the left SCM/putamen followed CSHT. MVPA identified a cluster within the subcallosal cortex (SubCalC) representing the highest variation in peak activation between time points. Setting the SubCalC as a seed, whole-brain analysis showed a decoupling between the SubCalC and the medial frontal cortex during CSHT. These results indicate that CSHT with estradiol post-GAS, modulates rs-FC in regions engaged in cognitive, emotional, and sensorimotor processes.

PMID: 31440128 [PubMed]

Functional connectivity impairment of postcentral gyrus in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis with somatosensory disorder.

Sat, 08/24/2019 - 12:20
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Functional connectivity impairment of postcentral gyrus in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis with somatosensory disorder.

Eur J Radiol. 2019 Sep;118:200-206

Authors: Fu J, Chen X, Gu Y, Xie M, Zheng Q, Wang J, Zeng C, Li Y

Abstract
PURPOSE: To characterize the spatial patterns of functional connectivity(FC) changes of whole brain in RRMS with somatosensory disorder(RRMS-SS) and to investigate the correlation between abnormal FC and clinical scores.
METHODS: Twenty-six RRMS-SS patients and 23 healthy controls(HC) underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging(RS-fMRI) scanning. The clinical scores were collected including Expanded Disability Status Scores(EDSS), Disease Duration and Somatosensory Evaluation by the Fugl-Meyer sensory score(FMSS). With the voxel-wise methods, RS-fMRI data were analyzed using REST software, to assess the FC of the postcentral gyrus(PoCG). Correlation between clinical variables and the strength of FC was analyzed.
RESULTS: Compared with HC, the left postcentral-based FC showed decreased FC of the right cerebellum_8, lingual lobe and Rolandic operculum gyrus, and increased FC of the left middle frontal lobe. The right postcentral-based FC revealed decreased FC with the right Heschl's gyrus lobule, and increased FC with bilateral middle frontal lobe (p <  0.001, AlphaSim corrected). Correlation analysis revealed that the FC of altered brain regions was associated with FMSS, EDSS and disease duration.
CONCLUSION: The functional connectivity of PoCG at RS-fMRI has multi-network changes in patients with RRMS-SS. This suggests a complex pattern of abnormal connections between the somatosensory network regions and the whole brain. Moreover, the correlation between the FC and the FMSS, such as the left middle frontal lobe and the right PoCG, indicate that these two brain regions play an important role in RRMS-SS.

PMID: 31439243 [PubMed - in process]

Abnormal spontaneous neural activity in the medial prefrontal cortex and right superior temporal gyrus correlates with anhedonia severity in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Fri, 08/23/2019 - 11:20
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Abnormal spontaneous neural activity in the medial prefrontal cortex and right superior temporal gyrus correlates with anhedonia severity in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

J Affect Disord. 2019 Aug 13;259:47-55

Authors: Xia J, Fan J, Du H, Liu W, Li S, Zhu J, Yi J, Tan C, Zhu X

Abstract
BACKGROUD: Converging evidence indicated the presence of clinically significant anhedonia in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Studying anhedonia and its neural correlates in OCD may be beneficial in understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of OCD. However, the neural mechanisms that underlie anhedonia in OCD still remain unclear. The present study was designed to bridge this research gap by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).
METHODS: 29 OCD patients with anhedonia (OCD-AH), 31 OCD patients with normal hedonia (OCD-NH), and 30 healthy controls (HC) received the fMRI scan. The low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) approach was applied to compare spontaneous neural activity among the three groups. Relationships between the regional ALFFs and anhedonia levels were examined in OCD patients.
RESULT: OCD-AH and OCD-NH manifested overlapping but partially distinct brain alterations. Notably, compared to OCD-NH, the OCD-AH showed decreased ALFF in right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and increased ALFF in medial prefontal cortex (MPFC). Moreover, ALFF values in the right STG were negatively correlated with social anhedonia severity, and ALFFs in the MPFC were positively correlated with both physical and social anhedonia severity in patients with OCD.
LIMITATIONS: Relatively small sample size; ALFF could not provide more holistic information of brain network.
CONCLUSION: The present study revealed that abnormal spontaneous neural activity in MPFC is associated with both physical and social anhedonia, while altered intrinsic brain function in right STG is specifically associated with social anhedonia in OCD. These findings contribute to our understandings of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying anhedonia in OCD.

PMID: 31437701 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Experience-dependent neuroplasticity in trained musicians modulates the effects of chronic pain on insula-based networks - A resting-state fMRI study.

Fri, 08/23/2019 - 11:20
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Experience-dependent neuroplasticity in trained musicians modulates the effects of chronic pain on insula-based networks - A resting-state fMRI study.

Neuroimage. 2019 Aug 19;:116103

Authors: Zamorano AM, Montoya P, Cifre I, Vuust P, Riquelme I, Kleber B

Abstract
Recent resting-state fMRI studies associated extensive musical training with increased insula-based connectivity in large-scale networks involved in salience, emotion, and higher-order cognitive processes. Similar changes have also been found in chronic pain patients, suggesting that both types of experiences can have comparable effects on insula circuitries. Based on these observations, the current study asked the question whether, and if so in what way, different forms of experience-dependent neuroplasticity may interact. Here we assessed insula-based connectivity during fMRI resting-state between musicians and non-musicians both with and without chronic pain, and correlated the results with clinical pain duration and intensity. As expected, insula connectivity was increased in chronic pain non-musicians relative to healthy non-musicians (with cingulate cortex and supplementary motor area), yet no differences were found between chronic pain non-musicians and healthy musicians. In contrast, musicians with chronic pain showed decreased insula connectivity relative to both healthy musicians (with sensorimotor and memory regions) and chronic pain non-musicians (with the hippocampus, inferior temporal gyrus, and orbitofrontal cortex), as well as lower pain-related inferences with daily activities. Pain duration correlated positively with insula connectivity only in non-musicians, whereas pain intensity exhibited distinct relationships across groups. We conclude that although music-related sensorimotor training and chronic pain, taken in isolation, can lead to increased insula-based connectivity, their combination may lead to higher-order plasticity (metaplasticity) in chronic pain musicians, engaging brain mechanisms that can modulate the consequences of maladaptive experience-dependent neural reorganization (i.e., pain chronification).

PMID: 31437550 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Structural connectivity profile supports laterality of the salience network.

Fri, 08/23/2019 - 11:20
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Structural connectivity profile supports laterality of the salience network.

Hum Brain Mapp. 2019 Aug 21;:

Authors: Zhang Y, Suo X, Ding H, Liang M, Yu C, Qin W

Abstract
The salience network (SN) is mainly involved in detecting and filtering multimodal salient stimuli, and mediating the switch between the default mode network and central executive network. Early studies have indicated a right-sided dominance in the functional organization of the SN; however, the anatomical basis of the functional lateralization remains unclear. Here, we hypothesized that the structural connectivity profile between the frontoinsular cortex (FIC) and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), which are two core hubs of the SN, is also dominant in the right hemisphere. Based on diffusion and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI) of adult healthy volunteers in independent datasets, we found a stable right-sided laterality of both the FIC-dACC structural and functional connectivity in both the human connectome project cohort and a local Chinese cohort. Furthermore, a significant effect of aging on the integrity of the right FIC-dACC structural connectivity was also identified. The right-sided laterality of the structural organization of the SN may help us to better understand the functional roles of the SN in the normal human brain.

PMID: 31436006 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Cognitive Training Reorganizes Network Modularity in Traumatic Brain Injury.

Fri, 08/23/2019 - 11:20
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Cognitive Training Reorganizes Network Modularity in Traumatic Brain Injury.

Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2019 Aug 22;:1545968319868710

Authors: Han K, Chapman SB, Krawczyk DC

Abstract
Background. Graph-theoretic approaches are increasingly popular for identifying the patterns of disrupted neural systems after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the patterns of neuroplasticity in brain organization after cognitive training in TBI are less well understood. Objective. We identified the patterns of training-induced neuroplasticity of the whole-brain network in TBI, using resting-state functional connectivity and graph theory. Methods. A total of 64 civilians and veterans with TBI were randomized into either a strategy-based cognitive training group (n = 33) or a knowledge-based training group (active control group; n = 31) for 8 weeks. The participants experienced mild to severe TBI without focal damage and persistent cognitive dysfunctions. A subset of participants complained of subclinical but residual psychiatric symptoms. We acquired their resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging before training, immediately posttraining, and 3 months posttraining. From participants' resting-state networks, we obtained the modularity, participation coefficient, within-module connectivity, global efficiency, and local efficiency over multiple network densities. We next performed longitudinal analyses on those measures corrected for multiple comparisons across network densities using false discovery rate (FDR). Results. Relative to the knowledge-based training group, the strategy-based cognitive training group had reduced modularity and increased participation coefficient, global efficiency, and local efficiency over time (Pnodal < .05; qFDR < 0.05). Brain behavior analysis revealed that the participation coefficient and global efficiency within the strategy-based cognitive training group correlated with trail-making scores in the context of training (Pnodal < .05; qFDR < 0.05). Conclusions. Cognitive training reorganized modular networks in TBI over the whole brain. Graph-theoretic approaches may be useful in identifying a potential brain-based marker of training efficacy in TBI.

PMID: 31434528 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

EPI distortion correction for concurrent human brain stimulation and imaging at 3T.

Thu, 08/22/2019 - 16:20

EPI distortion correction for concurrent human brain stimulation and imaging at 3T.

J Neurosci Methods. 2019 Aug 18;:108400

Authors: Oh H, Kim JH, Yau JM

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be paired with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in concurrent TMS-fMRI experiments. These multimodal experiments enable causal probing of network architecture in the human brain which can complement alternative network mapping approaches. Critically, merely introducing the TMS coil into the scanner environment can sometimes produce substantial magnetic field inhomogeneities and spatial distortions which limit the utility of concurrent TMS-fMRI.
METHOD AND RESULTS: We assessed the efficacy of point spread function corrected echo planar imaging (PSF-EPI) in correcting for the field inhomogeneities associated with a TMS coil at 3 T. In phantom and brain scans, we quantitatively compared the coil-induced distortion artifacts measured in EPI scans with and without PSF correction. We found that the application of PSF corrections to the EPI data significantly improved signal-to-noise and reduced distortions. In phantom scans with the PSF-EPI sequence, we also characterized the temporal profile of dynamic artifacts associated with TMS delivery and found that image quality remained high as long as the TMS pulse preceded the RF excitation pulses by at least 50 ms. Lastly, we validated the PSF-EPI sequence in human brain scans involving TMS and motor behavior as well as resting state fMRI scans.
CONCLUSIONS: Our collective results demonstrate the potential benefits of PSF-EPI for concurrent TMS-fMRI when coil-related artifacts are a concern. The ability to collect high quality resting state fMRI data in the same session as the concurrent TMS-fMRI experiment offers a unique opportunity to interrogate network architecture in the human brain.

PMID: 31434000 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Altered amygdala resting-state functional connectivity following acupuncture stimulation at BaiHui (GV20) in first-episode drug-Naïve major depressive disorder.

Thu, 08/22/2019 - 16:20
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Altered amygdala resting-state functional connectivity following acupuncture stimulation at BaiHui (GV20) in first-episode drug-Naïve major depressive disorder.

Brain Imaging Behav. 2019 Aug 20;:

Authors: Duan G, He Q, Pang Y, Chen W, Liao H, Liu H, Tan L, Liu Y, Tao J, Zhang J, Wei X, Sun P, Liu P, Deng D

Abstract
Amygdala is an important locus of dysfunction implicated in major depressive disorder(MDD). Aberrant amygdala networks(AN) had been reported in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) study. The safety and efficacy of acupuncture treatment for MDD have been verified in previous clinical studies. This study is aimed to investigate whether acupuncture at GV20 could modulate the abnormal AN of patients with the first-episode, drug-naïve MDD by using rs-fMRI combined with functional connectivity (FC) method. Thirty MDD patient underwent 6-min rs-fMRI scans respectively before and after 20-min electro-acupuncture stimulate(EAS) at GV20. Twenty-nine healthy subjects underwent only a 6-min rs-fMRI scan. Based on the amygdala as the seed region, FC method was adopted to examine abnormal AN in patients by comparing with healthy subjects and to evaluate the influence of EAS on intrinsic connectivity within the AN in patients with MDD. Compared to healthy subjects, MDD patients had aberrant intrinsic AN which mainly showed increased FC between amygdala and hippocampus, precuneus, precentral gyrus and angular gyrus, as well as decreased FC between amygdala and orbital frontal cortex(OFC). Moreover, our results indicated that EAS at GV20 induced increased/decreased FC between amygdala and certain regions in MDD patients. In addition, the intrinsic amygdala FC within other certain brain regions in MDD patients were regulated by EAS at GV20. The abnormal AN of MDD patients could be modulated by EAS at GV20. Our findings may further provide the potential imaging evidence to support the modulatory mechanisms of acupuncture on MDD.

PMID: 31432318 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Resting-state neural activity and connectivity associated with subjective happiness.

Thu, 08/22/2019 - 16:20
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Resting-state neural activity and connectivity associated with subjective happiness.

Sci Rep. 2019 Aug 20;9(1):12098

Authors: Sato W, Kochiyama T, Uono S, Sawada R, Kubota Y, Yoshimura S, Toichi M

Abstract
The majority of people throughout the world rate subjective happiness as the top of the important thing in life. A recent structural neuroimaging study exploring neurocognitive mechanisms underlying subjective happiness has suggested that the gray matter volume of the right precuneus is associated with Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) scores. However, how the neural activity in this region, as well as the neural functional coupling between this and other regions, could be related to SHS scores remains unclear. To investigate these issues, we performed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and analyzed the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) in participants, whose subjective happiness was evaluated using the SHS. Lower fALFF values in the right precuneus were associated with higher SHS scores. Furthermore, functional connectivity and spectral dynamic causal modeling analyses showed that both functional and effective connectivity of the right precuneus with the right amygdala were positively associated with SHS scores. These findings, together with other evidence on the information-processing functions of these brain regions, suggest the possibility that subjective happiness is associated with a reduction in self-referential mental processes, which are well integrated with emotional processing.

PMID: 31431639 [PubMed - in process]

A multimodal MRI study of the neural mechanisms of emotion regulation impairment in women with obesity.

Thu, 08/22/2019 - 16:20
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A multimodal MRI study of the neural mechanisms of emotion regulation impairment in women with obesity.

Transl Psychiatry. 2019 Aug 20;9(1):194

Authors: Steward T, Picó-Pérez M, Mestre-Bach G, Martínez-Zalacaín I, Suñol M, Jiménez-Murcia S, Fernández-Formoso JA, Vilarrasa N, García-Ruiz-de-Gordejuela A, Veciana de Las Heras M, Custal N, Virgili N, Lopez-Urdiales R, Menchón JM, Granero R, Soriano-Mas C, Fernandez-Aranda F

Abstract
Maladaptive emotion regulation contributes to overeating and impedes weight loss. Our study aimed to compare the voluntary downregulation of negative emotions by means of cognitive reappraisal in adult women with obesity (OB) and female healthy controls (HC) using a data-driven, multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach. Women with OB (n = 24) and HC (n = 25) carried out an emotion regulation task during functional MRI scanning. Seed-to-voxel resting-state connectivity patterns derived from activation peaks identified by this task were compared between groups. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to examine white matter microstructure integrity between regions exhibiting group differences in resting-state functional connectivity. Participants in the OB group presented reduced activation in the ventromedial prefrontal (vmPFC) cortex in comparison to the HC group when downregulating negative emotions, along with heightened activation in the extrastriate visual cortex (p < 0.05, AlphaSim-corrected). Moreover, vmPFC peak activity levels during cognitive reappraisal were negatively correlated with self-reported difficulties in emotion regulation. OB patients exhibited decreased functional connectivity between the vmPFC and the temporal pole during rest (peak-pFWE = 0.039). Decreased fractional white-matter track volume in the uncinate fasciculus, which links these two regions, was also found in participants with OB. Taken together, our findings are indicative of emotion regulation deficits in OB being underpinned by dysfunctional hypoactivity in the vmPFC and hyperactivity in the extrastriate visual cortex. Our results provide a potential target circuit for neuromodulatory interventions to improve emotion regulation skills and weight-loss intervention outcomes.

PMID: 31431608 [PubMed - in process]

"Resting-state fMRI in Parkinson's disease patients with cognitive impairment: A meta-analysis": Answer to Wang and colleagues.

Thu, 08/22/2019 - 16:20
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"Resting-state fMRI in Parkinson's disease patients with cognitive impairment: A meta-analysis": Answer to Wang and colleagues.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2019 Jul 12;:

Authors: Wolters AF, van de Weijer SCF, Leentjens AFG, Duits AA, Jacobs HIL, Kuijf ML

PMID: 31431324 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Brain hubs in lesion models: Predicting functional network topology with lesion patterns in patients.

Thu, 08/22/2019 - 16:20
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Brain hubs in lesion models: Predicting functional network topology with lesion patterns in patients.

Sci Rep. 2017 12 20;7(1):17908

Authors: Yuan B, Fang Y, Han Z, Song L, He Y, Bi Y

Abstract
Various important topological properties of healthy brain connectome have recently been identified. However, the manner in which brain lesion changes the functional network topology is unknown. We examined how critical specific brain areas are in the maintenance of network topology using multivariate support vector regression analysis on brain structural and resting-state functional imaging data in 96 patients with brain damages. Patients' cortical lesion distribution patterns could significantly predict the functional network topology and a set of regions with significant weights in the prediction models were identified as "lesion hubs". Intriguingly, we found two different types of lesion hubs, whose lesions associated with changes of network topology towards relatively different directions, being either more integrated (global) or more segregated (local), and correspond to hubs identified in healthy functional network in complex manners. Our results pose further important questions about the potential dynamics of the functional brain network after brain damage.

PMID: 29263390 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Identification of traits and functional connectivity-based neurotraits of chronic pain.

Wed, 08/21/2019 - 15:20
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Identification of traits and functional connectivity-based neurotraits of chronic pain.

PLoS Biol. 2019 Aug;17(8):e3000349

Authors: Vachon-Presseau E, Berger SE, Abdullah TB, Griffith JW, Schnitzer TJ, Apkarian AV

Abstract
Psychological and personality factors, socioeconomic status, and brain properties all contribute to chronic pain but have essentially been studied independently. Here, we administered a broad battery of questionnaires to patients with chronic back pain (CBP) and collected repeated sessions of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) brain scans. Clustering and network analyses applied on the questionnaire data revealed four orthogonal dimensions accounting for 56% of the variance and defining chronic pain traits. Two of these traits-Pain-trait and Emote-trait-were associated with back pain characteristics and could be related to distinct distributed functional networks in a cross-validation procedure, identifying neurotraits. These neurotraits showed good reliability across four fMRI sessions acquired over five weeks. Further, traits and neurotraits all related to the income, emphasizing the importance of socioeconomic status within the personality space of chronic pain. Our approach is a first step in providing metrics aimed at unifying the psychology and the neurophysiology of chronic pain applicable across diverse clinical conditions.

PMID: 31430270 [PubMed - in process]

Altered Spontaneous Brain Activity of Children with Unilateral Amblyopia: A Resting State fMRI Study.

Wed, 08/21/2019 - 15:20
Related Articles

Altered Spontaneous Brain Activity of Children with Unilateral Amblyopia: A Resting State fMRI Study.

Neural Plast. 2019;2019:3681430

Authors: Dai P, Zhang J, Wu J, Chen Z, Zou B, Wu Y, Wei X, Xiao M

Abstract
Objective: This study is aimed at investigating differences in local brain activity and functional connectivity (FC) between children with unilateral amblyopia and healthy controls (HCs) by using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI).
Methods: Local activity and FC analysis methods were used to explore the altered spontaneous brain activity of children with unilateral amblyopia. Local brain function analysis methods included the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF). FC analysis methods consisted of the FC between the primary visual cortex (PVC-FC) and other brain regions and the FC network between regions of interest (ROIs-FC) selected by independent component analysis.
Results: The ALFF in the bilateral frontal, temporal, and occipital lobes in the amblyopia group was lower than that in the HCs. The weakened PVC-FC was mainly concentrated in the frontal lobe and the angular gyrus. The ROIs-FC between the default mode network, salience network, and primary visual cortex network (PVCN) were significantly reduced, whereas the ROIs-FC between the PVCN and the high-level visual cortex network were significantly increased in amblyopia.
Conclusions: Unilateral amblyopia may reduce local brain activity and FC in the dorsal and ventral visual pathways and affect the top-down attentional control. Amblyopia may also alter FC between brain functional networks. These findings may help understand the pathological mechanisms of children with amblyopia.

PMID: 31428144 [PubMed - in process]

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